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Slownik Geograficzny Translations

Siebież [now Sebezh, Vitsyebsk, Belarus]

- a province town in Witebsk gubernia, lying on a peninsula of modest elevation and surrounded on three sides by the waters of Lake Siebież. At 56°17' North latitude and 28°10' East longitude, the town lies about 142 miles from Vitebsk and about 56 miles from the Warsaw-St. Petersburg railroad station at Rzezyca [ed.-- today Rezekne]. In 1886, the town had 4,051 inhabitants (1,214 Russian Orthodox, 393 Catholics, 7 petty gentry, 1 Protestant, and 2,436 Jews). At the end of May 1885, the town was engulfed in a horrible fire, which destroyed about 600 structures. Over time, these are slowly being rebuilt.


As of today the town possesses a Russian Orthodox parish church (named Birth of the Blessed Virgin Mary), 6 Orthodox chapels, the brick Roman Catholic Holy Trinity parish church, a synagogue, 5 Jewish prayer-houses, provincial [ed.-public?], parochial, and Jewish schools, postal and telegraph stations, a deposit-and-withdrawal [ed.- not sure of the compound word **wkladowo-zaliczkowy** here] bank (under the direction of Casimir Medunicki up to 1880). In 1780, Siebież had 361 Christian inhabitants and 57 Jews (probably counting only males); in 1867 there were 465 homes there (5 brick) and 2,909 inhabitants (205 Catholics, 19 Protestants, and 1,189 Jews), and 25 shops. The town possesses a cattle-stockade and about 2,720 acres of land. Income from municipal holdings amount to about 2,500 rubles annually.


Handicraft industries have developed somewhat weakly (in 1867 there were 106 handcraftsmen); at the same time, there were 188 workers devoted to agricultural activities on leases of town lands. Manufacturing is limited to 11 small tanneries, one brewery, and one steam-driven mill. The greater portion of the Jewish inhabitants engage in trade, in a livelier fashion there than other towns in Witebsk gubernia, relying upon their predominance to make the most of the situation. The chief objects of trade are animal hides and flax, which are exploited immediately for processing, eking a percentage from the impoverished majority of the population, and later sold in Rydz [ed.-- today Riga]. In the town, markets are conducted three times weekly-- on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. There are also six annual fairs: on January 6, during the first week of Lent, March 25, April 23, August 1, and November 26.


No one knows when or by whom the town was founded. In his chronicles, Strykowski makes mention of Siebież in the year 1414 as a nearby citadel of Pskov, the more notable in this because in the same year Witold the Great Prince of Lithuania gave it in opposition to Pskov to Dryse [ed.- the town of Druya], decorated it, and then ordered it to be burned down(!). As a consequence of the treaty between the Prince of Moscow, Vasily Vasileivich, and Casimir Jagellon in 1449, Lithuania lost its influence over Pskov and Novgorod, but Siebież then still remained under its control. At the beginning of 1535, the Voivod of Moscow, Prince Vasily Shusky, repelled an attack Zygmunt the Old at Smolensk and occupied the surroundings at Siebież, [ed.-declaring his intentions of] committing Siebież to his care, from the heights of the fortress and during his visit to the Orthodox Church named the Beheading of St. John the Baptist. The castle there was renamed "Siebież" from "New Siebież" by Ivanhorod (according to Karamzin).


Local tradition confirms the existence of two castles in Siebież. The first stood on a hilly prominence extending into the depths of the lake and thus earning its name; the second, however, was built especially loftily at the entrance to the town. A deep moat dug across from one part of the lake to another, neatly separated the small town from the old castle, forming an artificial island. Across the moat would have been a drawbridge with a defensive gate. No traces of these fortifications are found at present.


According to Karamzin, in 1536 (the Polish king) Sigismund dispatched 20,000 Polish and Lithuanian forces against Siebież under the control of the Voivod of Kiev, Andreiv Nimry Niemirov, which force perished to a man attempting to storm the new lofty and well-provisioned stronghold. One portion of these soldiers' boats broke down, drowning them in the lake; a second portion, woefully ignorant of the (operation of) their firearms, discharged them within the encirclement, shooting each other; the rest in the end were brought down by a sally from the fortress. Even so, the voivod escaped from the massacre. In memory of this victory, Great Princess Helena commanded the construction of Holy Trinity Orthodox church in Siebież.


Polish historical sources do not acknowledge this defeat; moreover, in the lists of the voivods of Kiev, there is no "Niemirow", although there is truly a "Andreiv Niemirowicz" at an earlier time, probably between 1511 to 1520. The officeholder of voivod in 1536 was George Radziwiłł, also Hetman [ed.- chief army commander] of Lithuania from 1533.


There are a great number of nearly identical burial mounds [ed. **kurhanow**] near Siebież and its vicinity, the nearest of which is at the lake edge, where buoys also suggest a (onetime) shipyard (or docks) nearby. Also nearby is located an inscrutable cemetery, which is impossible to characterize either in time or as to the nationality of the fallen knights buried there.


Local tradition speaks about "Witold's road and bridge", "of the Lithuanian cemetery", and about later times: for example, the royal hill and beautiful red log, where (King Stefan) Batory had to rest at the fallen pine-trees [ed.- **i.t.d**?].


There is a great deal of uncertainty in general information about Siebież from this period, since it remained from 1536 under the authority of the Prince of Moscow. From the manuscripts [ed.-**p.n**--?] of Wypis and Pskovian literature about the town of Pskov and its fortresses, there are descriptions of the town of Siebież preserved in detail in them, the possibility deriving from Ivan the Terrible's desire to know all about settlements around him. Moreover, these lists preserve a record of gunsmiths, marksmen, and Cossacks assigned to their defense. For example, there were 23 courtly gunsmiths and 171 marksmen and Cossacks [ed.-recorded in one of the texts?]. Furthermore, the manuscripts indicated troubles or riots affecting Treasury revenues. These are the sole bits of information regarding Siebież from this epoch.


In 1581, when Moscovian members of Parliament arrived at Grodno, King Stefan Batory demanded the return of the castle "Sobies" (Siebież) erected as a Royal base, and the destruction of Bielsk. The envoy to Moscow, Kristof Dzierzek, sent to procure it, brought back a refusal as a reply. In 1582, following the ten-year armistice with the Kievan "Horce", the issue regarding Siebież was again raised. When the (Polish King) Sigismund III, following the Moscovian occupation of Smolensk, gave up his imaginary claim to the Tsarist throne for his eligible son Wladislaw , he sent him to Moscow and secured a formal treaty. The substance of this treaty resulted in surrendering many towns to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth including Siebeiz on April 4, 1617. Accordingly, on conclusion of the Treaty of Dziewulin (Dywiline or Deulino), the Commonwealth obtained Smolensk as well as the fortress castles of Sieviersk and Siebież. About two years later (1620), Sigismund made public the bequeathing of certain birth-right privileges to Samuel Sowicz Korsak, for carrying out the terms of the armistice in the Dziewulin office, as Captain of both the cavalry and the Siebież fortress. Among others, the privilege (of the right) to vote came in recognition of the fact that Korsak [ed.-and his men?] had remained at his post alone in the fortress during the widespread wars, [ed. kept up communications?] on horseback or on foot, and moreover, had been forced to subsist on limited provisions in the fort's larder for almost a half-year. (This excerpt was confirmed as certified in the Siebieżan manuscript).


On April 8, 1625, Sigismund III publicized privileges for those partisan knights in the form of grants of about 5000 acres of land each for their role in the defense of Siebież. These privileges were afterwards formally entered into the "Magdeburg" Register in Siebież by the King's son, Wladislaw, with the registrations intended "into perpetuity". The aim of the king was to establish security for Siebież under the Woiwod of Smolensk, and not for any expected future seizure, and he dispatched a Commission consisting of the persons Alexander Korwin Gosiewski, Official and Clerk of the Prince of Lithuania, Andrew Szoldrski, Sheriff of Wielisk, Premysl & Kupsk, as well as Balthazar Strawinski, Vicar of Gniezno & Kruszwick and the Canon of Krakow, in order to ensure the security of that place, such that the castle would be managed correctly and the peoples' rights would be secured with the greatest diligence. The Commission's instructions were specifically: "to act with sufficient means considering both the welfare of the place and the deserving people as well as to certify conditions for the assigned defense of the fortress".


Privately, however, the King issued the 5000-acre grants from the settlements around the castle, "to be assigned to the 30 mounted knights and Cossacks in service, with 165 additional acres for each steed". Cossack men as well as their wives, children and descendants had the rights to use the land there for growing flax, and the Crown representative for Siebież with royal acknowledgement was free "to give, to make a gift, sell, traffic in, and register such the same, which he was able to accomplish for their welfare". In order to accomplish this, homesteads were built as quickly as possible, introducing agricultural husbandry as well. The king gave them the liberty for six years, in which no one could compel them to unpleasant duties. After passage of six years, they were free from service, whichever it was customary to do [ed.-**t.j**--?], ascertained by Crown letters and the Crown representative, except for knightly service and alternating guard duty at the castle, or where the chief of the castle indicated necessary and customary services. They all were bound to be present for a demonstration in the fourth year at the castle grounds. Court and other civil affairs were to be conducted according to their own Smolensk Cossack laws and statutes by the Sheriff in the absence of the castle captain. Business or legal affairs which occurred there had to be recorded in the Siebież castle register and not with local authorities. For unpredictable occurrences, "every compulsory servant would receive up to 8 zlotys for a horse from the treasury of the Prince of Lithuania."


King Sigismund allowed one other special privilege to the Siebież Cossacks-- their own standard, a red and white cross. These were among the observations of the castle captain (an excerpt from the Perpetual Magdeburg Register of Siebież).


At this time or perhaps somewhat earlier, such settlements were installed as a defense at the borders with the Prince of Moscow, planted in villages composing the present gminas (Vlachs), but also drawing a certain number towards the border of Nevelsk (Nevel) province. For the inhabitants of these villages, the Cossacks were referred to as "the armored boyars". They possessed around 67,500 acres of land as private proprietors, differentiating themselves from the peasants who as a caste considered the entire property of the gmina to be held in common. In the times of Tsarina Catherine II the Great, numbers of these "armored boyars" were deported to Siberia, where Librowicz detected traces of them among inhabitants of the Fortress Kaminnogorsk and the "Viper" coal mines in the Altai Mountains; today they are almost entirely denationalized, merely dressing differently to distinguish themselves from local inhabitants and only dimly preserving any memory of their origins.


On the 16th of December, 1640, King Wladislaw IV, at the advice of his Chamberlain, created the Commission Board of Nevel to consider activities by the Great Prince of Moscow in "strengthening the castles of Nevel and Siebież". (Podgorski, Polish Monuments Records of the 17th Century). At about this time, Siebież established the position of a provincial Sheriff along with its appurtenances, who eventually would become a vassal to the prominent Radziwiłłs. In 1649, the Sejm (Polish Parliament) conferred upon Prince Janusz Radziwiłł, Field Herman (chief army commander) to the Prince of Lithuania, a large block of excellent Crown property in the area along with the Sheriff of Newel. Henceforth, each branch of the Radziwiłł family considered themselves as the Lords of Newel and Siebież. Siebież became included within the (later) so called Newbursk Estate of the Radziwiłłs.


Under Sejm law, the Radziwiłł family entertained hopes of controlling the Siebież estate, although a lawsuit was brought against Prince Jerome Radziwiłł following the invasion of 1648, challenging the basis of the family claims under Sigismund III in 1625 by the local Siebież churches at Lake Wiecor and Woronov. This lawsuit lasted for an entire century, and in 1748 it was finally won by Reverend (Vicar) Krutelski, with 940 acres of land removed from the Countess of Siebież's property for the churches.


In 1654, Siebież remained under occupation by Russian forces for the duration of the original treaty with Andrew [ed.-Polish king?]. On January 30, 1667, with the Russian surrender and prolongation of a truce with Andrew, Tsar Feodor Alexander removed Siebież from the peacetime sanctions imposed in 1866 on nearby Wielize and Newel. During the Swedish wars, Russian forces again occupied Siebież in 1705 and again in 1707. Eventually, Siebież, now part of the Voivodship of Polotsk, went over to control of the Russian boyars at the time of the first Polish partitions, along with the entire Polotsk Woiwod.


Under Tsarist control, Siebież at first was designated as a provincial town in Polotsk province, being incorporated into Pskov gubernia. From 1777, it became a province town within Polotsk gubernia, next into the newly created Belorussian territory and gubernia, and placed into Witebsk gubernia once again in 1802.


In 1812 [ed.- during the Russo-Napoleonic war], Siebież was occupied by the army corps of Count Wittgenstein, which later were defeated at the town, lulled to sleep at the ramparts by the apparent restraint of the enemy who suddenly attacked in strength from Pskov and St. Petersburg. Remnants of these fortifications still exist by the left bank of the lake, on the west side of the town.


Sigismund founded the original Siebież Catholic church in 1625; however, after it was burnt down, Prince Jerome Radziwiłł rebuilt the present one in 1649 out of brick, renaming it Holy Trinity. The Catholic parish in the Drusa (Druya)-Siebież diocese has 1,992 faithful. Chapels are found in: Antonowo, Glinki, Guslewo, Andrepol, Rowno, and Karasno (obtained from Basic Service Guide-- "Siebieżianna" author Korsak).


Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents. Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 484-487]


This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.

Siebież lake [now in Vitsyebsk oblast, Belarus]

Lying in the western portion of Siebież province, the lake is 5 miles in length and up to two miles wide, covering 6.4 square miles. The town of Siebież is located on a peninsula formed by the lake waters. The banks of the lake are steep, particularly on the northern side, where in the distance about 1.4 miles from the town, a chain of elevated hills extends across in transverse fashion, creating a watershed division between the Great and Western Dvina River systems. On the eastern side, the Black River flows into the lake; from the western side, the Uhornyka River flows out of it, joining Lakes Siebież and Orono for a distance of about one mile, and connecting further with Lakes Bialy, Nieczeroco and Lisno. These are drained by the Swolna River (navigable) which flows into the Drissa and ultimately the Dvina. These waterways are used to transport flax by the town merchants to Riga, importing on their return salt, herring, groceries and other produce to Siebież. (J. Krz.)


Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 484]


This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.

Siebież powiat [now in Vitsyebsk oblast, Belarus]

Siebież province, lying within the northern portion of Witebsk gubernia, is bordered on the north by Pskov gubernia, on the east by Nevel province, on the south by Polotsk and Druja provinces, and on the west by Lucza (Ludza) province. According to Colonel Strelbicki, it comprises 1,458 square miles, but 1,477 square miles according to earlier surveys.


The province belongs [ed.-climatologically and topographically] to the Baltic Lake District, and its land surface is highly dissected [ed.- glacial moraines interspersed with lakes and drainages], forming the upper watershed for the Great Dvina (which drains to the Finnish gulf) and Western Dvina (draining to Riga gulf) river systems. This watershed division boundary begins in the vicinity of Lake Osyn and Wolino farmstead (Anninski), cutting at Podgorje village a waterway through the Rudnia station to Rykov farm, and is joined from the east by another tributary about 17 miles downstream at Sowinski Greblo village, afterwards discharging into Swiblo and Niewiedro lakes. Here it is surrounded on the north by the shores of lake Niewiedro, then turning to the north near Hultajo (Newel province) and easing itself through the nearby hills to Botwino village (in Siebież province).


The highest point in the province is found in an area 1.7 miles to the north of Siebież town at Wodzychalinka Hill in the vicinity of Pietuchowszczyna village. The hills stand out in a discernible chain stretching to the northwest... [ed.-a description of other hills follows].


...Soils are predominantly sandy-clay to sandy, clear and moist given the location, in most places scarcely concealed by a thin layer of black-earth (Czernozem) soils. Irrigated areas are found along the Great and Western Dvina river systems. The Great Dvina flows to an insignificant wide expanse in the northern part of the province... [ed.- a description of the river systems follows].


...Among all of these streams, only the Swolna is navigable for draft and small barges. These are freighted to Lake Siebież, from which they are re-routed through the province via the lake system and canals. The province has abundant standing water, in the form of lakes and bogs. 331 lakes are found in the province... [ed.- a description of major lakes follows]. ...The entire province is swampy, especially the northern part. At the border with Pskov and Lucza provinces, there is a major swamp covering 57 square miles. To the north it ends in a pine forest; on the south it is bordered by the postal highway from Siebież to Ludza and bounded on the east by the Issa River. On the right bank of the Great Dvina is another swamp covering 88 square miles, interspersed with hills, roads, and by nettle thickets for much of it... [ed.- further descriptions of bogs follows]...


... In swamp locations, canals have been cut through, allowing small craft to collect wood from small trees. Sulfurous and ferrous mineral springs are found in the province, but are limited in extent. Forests covered 45% of the land area in 1867. Presently, the forest remains a common commodity sold to pay off government and private debts. However, wood for fuel is still abundant, and for the price it is a bargain. Townsfolk and those around without it, can buy a cord of fuel wood for 1 ruble/50 kopecks (without having to gather and ship it).


In 1886, there were 75,071 inhabitants in the province (not counting province towns), of which 70,741 were Orthodox, 1,420 Catholic, 2,119 Rozkolnikovs (Old-Believers), 106 Protestants, and 665 Jews. In 1863, there were 65,598 inhabitants (45,786 Orthodox, 7,314 Catholics, 1,423 Rozkolnikovs, 74 Protestants, and 1,001 Jews). In 1867 (according to Semenov), there were 54,583 inhabitants in the province (1,459 Catholics, 1,635 Rozkolnikovs, 26 Protestants, and 266 Jews). Such considerable differences in sums and simple (demographic and statistical) figures are "open to interpretation" (being founded on Tsarist government sources). (references according to Memoirs...)


Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents. Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 487-488]


This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.


1) Village in the District of Tomaszow, County of Tarnowatka, with Catholic Parish in Wozuczyn. In 1827 had 53 dwellings and 312 inhabitants.


2) Siemien – According to historian Jan Długosz SZEMYAN, and in 1531 SYEMYAN. A village and large manorial farm on the Tysmienica River, on it way from the large lake (pond), Siemien and not far from its confluence with the Piwonia. In the district of Radzyn, the county of Siemien, with the parish church in Parczew. It lies 21.5 kilometers from Radzyn. It has 51 dwellings, 268 inhabitants, and a water mill. In 1827 it had 30 homes, and 295 inhabitants. In 1871 the manorial farm of Siemien remained under the same name, with an open area of 3,834 acres; under cultivation and in gardens 794 acres, in meadow 268 acres, in pasture 118 acres, in water 1430 acres, in forest 947 acres, overgrown 140 acres, and barren 71 acres. It had 6 brick buildings and 22 wooden. The rotation of crop is among 15 fields and the forest has been under administration for 90 years. The former is composed of the following villages: Siemien with 37 settlers and 227 acres, Wolka Siemien with 20 settlers and 443 acres, Tulniki with 21 settlers and 206 acres, Wola Tulniki with 21 settlers and 572 acres, Grodek with 16 settlers and 391 acres, Dzialyn with 36 settlers and 629 acres, Juliopol with 50 settlers and 1,040 acres, Przymus with 8 settlers and 119 acres, Sewerynowka with 38 settlers and 757 acres, and Budki also know as Nadzieja with 31 settlers and 415 acres. From the list of Siemien we have left out the estate of Brwinow. Already in the middle of the 15th century Siemien belonged to the parish of Parczew (Długosz, L. B., 548). According to Regency Collector of the District of Lublin, from the year 1531 the villages of Siemien and Wola Siemien were in the parish of Parczew and had 128 acres of cultivated grain and a mill (Pawinski, MALAPOLSKA, p. 350. The county of Siemien borders on the counties of Suchowola, Milanow, Lisiawolka, Brzozowy Kat and Zelizna. It has 14,833 acres in area and 2890 inhabitants. It is the county seat of precinct II in Cichostow, with post office in Parczew. The county has two elementary schools in Dzialyn and Juliopol. In the county are found Amelin, Dzialyn, Grodek, Juliopol, Kopicha (Brwinow), Lupki, Nadzieja, Przymus, Sewerynowka, Siemien, Siemien Wolka, Tulniki, Tulniki Wolka, Wierzchowiny, and Wladyslawo.


3) Siemien the village in the district of Łomza, county of Kup with the parish church in Łomża (about 7½ kilometers distance). Nearby Łomża lies on the left bank of the Narew River. In 1867 if had 89 dwellings and about 300 inhabitants. In 1827 there were 17 dwellings and 105 inhabitants. One part of Siemien comes under the list of the region of Łomża, after being part of the National Estate of Łomża, and next to the tax district of Gielczyn; the second part was the home a a noble estate. Currently Siemien is divided into several parts, a) Siemien Dambrowski a manorial private farm, with 288 acres. In 1852 under the Dabrowski Family, Lochytnow was purchased . It belonged to the Nowicki Family. b) Noble Siemien was the residence of the noble estate. c)Siemien Rowy a peasant village of 151 acres. d) Siemien by the river,(part of the regional administration), a peasant village of 818 acres not excluding barren land. Siemien’s transfer is in documents from the year 1431 ( recorded in Kapica Armorial, Section 188 and 312). Br{onislaw} Ch{lebowski} - Lud{wik} Krz{ywicki}


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 544]


This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, is used by permission.

Sitno - Sitno Małe - Sitno Wielkie

[Edith Levin requested translation of the entry for Sitno or Sitnow, west-northwest of Bydgoszcz. There are numerous entries in Vol. 10, pp. 629ff. on places named "Sitno," including two northwest of Bydgoszcz. Both entries are translated here, the one farther north is probably the one she had in mind].




Sitno Małe and Wielkie, villages, Bydgoszcz powiat, 14 km. southeast of Mrocza and 6 km. north of Strzelewo (Strehlau), Bydgoszcz-Pila railway station; the area is 114 meters above sea level. E. Cal.


1). Sitno Małe, German Wilhelmsort, formerly Klein Sittno, has a Protestant church and a post office; it is served by the Catholic parish in Dabrówka; it has 18 houses, 237 inhabitants (77 Catholic, 160 Protestant), and measures 499 hectares in area (463 of fields, 3 of meadows). In 1489 it belonged to the Strzeleckis. In 1583 Andrzej Krosinski owned here 1 settled lan, 1 gardeners' lan, and 1 craftsmen's lan; Waclaw Grabinski owned 1½ lans, and 1 gardeners' lan; and the Gogolinskis owned 2 settled lans. In 1860 the Protestant congregation numbered 1,482 souls in 20 settlements, along with 2,000 Catholics.


2). Sitno Wielkie, German Gross Schittno, formerly Sittno, borders on Sitno Małe and lies on the highway from Mrocza to Bydgoszcz; it is served by the Catholic parish in Dabrówka, and by the Protestant congregation and post office in Sitno Małe. It has 14 houses, 125 inhabitants (30 Catholic, 95 Protestant) and measures 252 hectares (227 of fields, 2 of meadows, 2 of forests). In 1483 each of these owners possessed 1 settled lan and 1 gardeners' lan: Jan and Stanislaw Poczalkowski, Wojciech Kruszynski, Aleksander Pieczewski, Pawel Sicinski and Jan Derpowski. In more recent times the settlements have been part of the Wojnowo estates.-E. Callier...



Sitno, entry not translated




Sitno, German Sittnow, formerly Schitten, in 1505 Szythno, 1546 Szithna, a village in Zlotów powiat, served by the Mrocza railway station and the Catholic parish in Wiecbork; 1,617 hectares. In 1885 it had 89 houses, 110 hearths, 622 inhabitants (2 Catholic, 620 Protestant). Sitno formerly belonged to the Zebrzydowskis. Up to 1739 a Protestant church existed here, a branch of the one in Peperzyn; today the Lutherans have a chapel here. Every year they celebrate May 22nd as a day of prayer in memory of a major hailstorm (see Der Kreis Flatow by Schmitt, page 268). The 1-class Protestant school had 135 children in 1887.-Rev. Frydrychowitcz.




Sitno, entry not translated


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 629-630]


This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Fall 1997 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


1) a village in the district of Złotow, with its postal station in Kujan, and the Catholic parish in Slawianowo (about ½ mile away). Along with Kobylnik (with 11 homes and 96 inhabitants) is composed of 651 hectares (92 in forest, 80 in meadow, and 412 in cultivated fields). In 1885 it had 62 homes, 89 homesteads, and 464 inhabitants of which 363 were Catholic, 101 were Lutheran. In 1887 the Catholic school numbered one teacher and 128 children. In 1695 Skic became a noble village under Dzialynski the Governor of Kalisz, which was given as a pledge by Mrs. Skrzydlewski. Formerly there existed a Catholic Church under the protection of St. Andrew, associated with Skic. It was wooden and wodden shingles, and had 3 altars. The pastor possessed 2 wloka of fields and the lake of Popowko. Services were celebrated here usually every third Sunday. About the middle of the 17th century it was associated with the heirs of Andrew Grudzinski, the Governor of Kalisz. The 2 wloka of parsonage land in Skic was ceded for two more in Slawianowo. As a result, the little chruch was deprived of endowment and allowance and for the past 150 years has remained empty. At the end of the last century it was deconsecrated. In 1818...


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 670]


This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, is used by permission.


Składańce, a peasant-owned village, Lida powiat, in the 4th political district, gmina, rural district and treasury-owned estate of Radun, 5 km. from the gmina, 23.5 km. from Lida, and 44 km. from Wasiliszki; it has 25 houses, 204 Catholic inhabitants (in 1864 there were 81 souls per the rewizja).


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 680]


This translation, by Barbara Proko, first appeared in the Summer 1998 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".

Skorule [now Skarulia, Lithuania]

Skorule, or Skoruli, in Samogitian Skorulej, a church-owned village called a small town, and a manorial farmstead, on the left bank of the Wilia, by the mouth of the stream Lipki, in Kowno [Kaunas] county, 4th police district, with gmina office, post office and railroad in Janow [Jonava] (2 versts away), 32 versts from Kowno, on the Lipawa-Romny railway line [Lipawa is the town in Latvia now called Liepaja], between the stations of Gajzuny and Janow. It has 27 houses, 247 inhabitants, and a Catholic parish church, St. Ann's [sv. Onos]. The first funding for the pastorate here was provided in 1522 by Waclaw and Grzegorz Andrzejewicz, Maciej Pietruskiewicz and Stanislaw Bohdanowicz, confirmed by King Zygmunt I and the Bishop of Wilno [Vilnius]. The present Gothic-style church was bricked in 1662 by Andrzej Skorulski, Kowno marshal, the village's lord. It is without tower or vestibule, 48 ells long and 24 high, adorned with valuable images of Italian brushwork, also by Smuglewicz. This church was supposedly an Arian church for a time. The Catholic parish, in Kowno deanery, is called Skorule-Janowo, and has 2 branch churches, in Janow and Kulwa [Kulva], with 6,234 faithful. The soil is sandy; the populace is Belarusian, among the Lithuanian population that surrounds it on all sides. At one time the Skorulskis were hereditary owners of this estate, but today it is the property of the Siemaszkos. [J. Krz.]


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 703]


This translation, by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.


Skoszewo: a village in Chojnice county [powiat], served by the post office in Studzienica and the Catholic parish in Legno (about 15 km. away), 590 hectares (1 of forests, 11 of meadows, 308 of farmland). In 1895 there were 17 houses, 24 hearths, 134 Catholics, 22 Protestants; there was a one-class Catholic school. Skoszewo lies on the northern edge of Lake Sominskie, on the northern border of Chojnice powiat, and north of it extends Lake Skoszewskie. An inspection by Szaniawski in 17 10 (on page 69 of his report) stated that Skoszewo paid a Mass-tithe of 2 bushels of Tartarian buckwheat. In Waldemar's 1313 charter dividing Slupsk district from Pomerania, the stream "Zcossow," flowing by Skoszewo, is the border (see P. U. B. von Perlbach, page 617). According to an inspection by the Tuchola starosta's office in 1664, Skoszewo paid 36 florins, 20 pence. [Ks. Fr.]


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, pg. 708]


This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Summer 1999 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".




2.) Crinca In 1287 Skrzynki was a village in the district of Śrem 3 kilometers northwest of Kornik by the Skrzynka River on the north side of Lake Kornik in the midst of Poznan province. The local parish and post office were in Kornik, and the train station in Gadki was 4 kilometers away.  Skrzynki, combined with Moscina, in 1881 had 15 houses, 122 people, 97 catholic, 25 protestant and included 294 acres (hectares) which included 214 for farming, 25 for meadows, and 11 of forest. Theodorus Szczodrzyk, canon of Poznan, and Mrocki were both sons of Jaracza. They exchanged their own land which was Orkowo for Borek and Skrzynki, and these towns were under the bishop. From a document in Poznan from 1888 it is noted that Skrzynki took its name from the Skrzyneccy family near the end of the 14th century. In 1578 the village was part of the Kornik jurisdiction which was governed by Jerzy Kolaczek. There used to be seven different settlements where people lived, but in 1618 only one remained where people lived. Four other settlements were abandoned. Around 1773 Teofila Potulicka was endowed with Skrzynki by the head of the village leadership, but she and Robakowa were arguing about the borders.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, pp. 729-730]


This translation, by Malgorzata Biela, is used by permission.


1) Village with a church, District of Zlotow, post office in Kleszczyna. Situated on the shores of a lake, close to the boarder in the Duchy of Poznan. Together with the manorial farm, Wilhelmshof (2 homes and 37 inhabitants) comprises 362 hectares (30 in meadow, 315 in fields under cultivation). In 1885 it had 18 homes, 23 homesteads, 140 inhabitants; of which 126 were Catholic and 14 were Lutheran. Having a Catholic school and Catholic Church (deanery of Kamien) of St Jacob the Apostle, under the patronage of Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia, the walls of stone were constructed (1806), before him the Brotherhood of St. Barbara (from 1704) and the Society of the Solemnity (since 1859). Villages in the parish: Slawianowo, Wilhelmshof, Buntowo, Kleszczyna, Ober-Wilhelmssee colony, Maly Kleszczyna colony, Skic, Rudna, Kobylnik, Nieder and Mittel-Wilhelmssee. In 1867 there were 1321 souls in the parish, and in 1888 there were 1358. One of the church bells has the inscription “Fecit me Michael Wittwerck A.D. 1795.” The Pastors were 1695 Tomasz Barankiewicz, 1763 Bartlomiej Kleszczynski, 1763 Jan Hasse (According to Borck: Echo sepulchrales, II, page 771); in recent times 1848 Adolf Senftleben, 1865 Jan Rink, and 1886 Bruno Schulz. To the Pastor was given about 340 morgs of good land. Supervisor Jezierski from 1695 gave: Slawianowo, the village to Jan Dzialynski, Governor of Kalisz, and possession of the wooden church a few years after it was built. The pastor was given 2 wloka, of the former 4 wloka. With the parish church they gave: Slawianowo numbering 6 estates, up to 2 bushels of rye and as much oats by measure of Lobzenicki, the same from Buntowo (6 estates), Kleszczyna (10 estates), and Rudka (8 estates). In addition to that, the pastor received possession of meadows and formerly of Lake Slawianowko. Dispensaries for the church were St. Krayca and Stefan Wujek. The pastor had control of the school and garden. (p. 64b). In 1744 there was here a church with three towers. In a separate chapel stood a statue of St. Barbara, with a golden dress and silver floral work which cost 1000 florin. The hospital burned down already before this time. (According to DER KREIS FLATOW von Schmitt, page 280)


2) S., an estate in the same place, of 990 hectares, 139 in forest, 94 in meadow, and 690 of cultivated fields. In 1885 had 9 homes, 28 homesteads, 162 inhabitants of which 114 were Catholic and 48 were Lutheran. Ks. Fr.


Note: 1 wloka = 36 acres
1 morg = 1.2. acres
1 hectare = 2.47 acres


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, pp. 778-779]


This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, is used by permission.


Sławoszewko, also known as Slaboszewko, Slawoschewko in 1523, Szlaboszewko in 1567, a village and estate in the powiat of Mogilnicki, located about 9 km to the south of Barcin, on the road to Mogilino. The region / village is about 102 meter's above sea level and is located in the vicinity of Krzekolowo, Obudno, Szczepanko and Slawoszc. There is a Catholic Church at Szczepanowo, a Protestant Parish at Slawoszew, a Post Office at Dabrowie and a railroad station at Janikowie about 13 km distant and somewhat further in Mogilino a station already exists. In the year 1396 the village is known as Slawoszewo. About the year 1579 the village and surrounding area was owned by the Gorecki and Sierski Families: The Gorecki's had 150 to 200 morgs a small settlement with 2 crofts, small farmsteads with a courtyard, buildings and garden. A craftsman also resides here. The Sierski's had 100 to 150 morgs and 3 crofts, small farmsteads with a courtyard, buildings and garden. In the year 1618 there was 2-1/2 Lan, 3 crofts, small farmsteads with a courtyard, buildings and a craftsman. An outlying settlement/ hamlet in the last century also belongs to the estate of Goslawa family. In current times the village is part of the Manor known as “Kleinrode” which contained 8 houses 91 inhabitants of which 46 are Catholic and 45 are Protestants. There are 122 hectares of fields dedicated to agriculture and 1 of meadow. The Manor known as “Slawoszewko” contains 13 houses, 192 inhabitants, of which 113 are Catholics and 79 Protestant, there is 537 hectares of which 509 are agricultural fields. There is also a distillery, Brickwork’s and flocks of Rambouillet sheep.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p.791]


This translation, by Jim Piechorowski, is used by permission.


Sliwice, German name Groß Schliewitz, a church owned village in the Tuchola Forest, on the river Sliwiczka, 25.7 km. northeast of Tuchola, on the edge of Tuchola county. It is about 22 km. from the railroad line Tuchola-Starogard and eastward; it has 1,622 hectares (26 of forests, 281 of meadows, 916 of farmland). In 1868 it had 985 inhabitants; in 1885 it had 175 houses, 231 hearths, and 1,246 inhabitants, 1,142 of them Catholic, 68 Protestant, and 36 Jewish. In 1887 Protestant services were held here for the first time in the school building. There is a pastor, but he does not yet have a church. There is a 4-classroom Catholic school here (four teachers), an agricultural society, a reading room for that society, and a post office (it runs to Czersk). In 1883 the loan society had 9,000 marks in bills of exchange. There are two market fairs here every year.


During the days of August II Sliwice was ravaged by constant war, and as a result the king bestowed on Sliwice a grant entitling it to free wood for firewood and construction from the nearby royal forest, as well as free pasturage and fishing. Frederick the Great confirmed this document. Only recently the treasury bought these rights back partially, paying 178,000 marks for clearing the woods and 24,000 for free pasturage. For the right to fish in the lake they offer 17,000 marks, but the gmina demands more. A percentage of the 204,000 marks is paid annually to the entitled heirs, so that the gmina is now among the wealthiest in the area.


In 1830 the Catholic Church, St. Catherine's, of Swiecie deanery, of government patronage, was rebuilt of brick and stone. On one of the three houses is an inscription dated 1584. At the church there are Societies of Consolation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (since 1819) and of Divine Providence (since 1744), and a sobriety confraternity. The villages of the parish are: Sliwice, Sliwiczki, Lipowo, Krag, Lubocin, Rosochatka, Barlogi, Bieliczek (Silberhof), Loboda, Woziwoda, Jablonka, Kamionka, Bechsteinswalde, Lisiny, Einsidele, Wielka Gaczna, Wildgarten, Gruenthal, Klocek, Biala, Rzepiczna, Glówka, Okoniny Polskie, Rosenthal, Wolfsbruch, Bielska Struga, Linsk, Wadól, Laskie Piece, Zazdrosc, Laski, Lazek, Brzozowe Blota, Pfalzplatz, Gajdowskie, Zdroje, Ludwichowo, Trzebczyny, Sarnówek, Szlachta, Osówek, Starzyska, Osieczno, Wielkie and Male Krowno, Linówek, Brzezno, and Zdrojno. In 1867 there were 6,207 souls in the parish, in 1888 there were 8,030. Since the church has room for 800 people, but up to 2,000 come, it is supposed to be enlarged. In 1867, according to Madalinski's inspection, there was a wooden church here, and the pastor owned 120 mórgs. Sliwice, Lazek, Osówko, Linsk and Sliwiczki belonged to the parish; it numbered about 318 souls. Also belonging to the pastorate were lakes Chmielnik and Smug. There was a small garden next to the school; the administrator was Stan. Sadecki (p. 26). Sliwice belonged at that time to the Swiecie starosta.


The locals-Polish through and through-have lost their picturesque attire. Today men and women dress in German style. The people are short in stature; the girls don't let down their hair, but tie it up on the back of their heads. The people say there was a silver mine by the meadows called Rudziski. Now an iron bridge is there, called Srebrny [silver], and nearby is the village Silberhof ["silver manor" in German] or Bieliczek. In addition there are little bits of a shaft still on the surface here. Two mountains lie by the village, next to which were discovered two large circles of tall stones. [Rev. Fr.]


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, pp. 765-766]


This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Fall 1999 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


in documents Słup, an estate with a parish church in Szubin county, Kcynia deanery, 7 km. southwest of Szubin, on the Gąsawka, a tributary of the Noteć; it borders Dąbrówka, Królikowo, Szubska Wieś, Kowalewo, and Wąsosz.  Słupy has its own parish and post office, the railway station is 12 km. away in Kcynia.  It has 14 houses, 271 Catholic residents and 1 Protestant, 789 hectares of land (311 of fields, 293 of meadows, 20 of forest), a brick-making plant, a mill, a distillery, a cheese factory, and cultivation of Dutch cattle; the owner is Konstanty Źółtowski.  In 1233 Drogomir, son of Piotr, signed his name as z Słupów [from Słupy], as did Mikołaj in 1399; in 1577 there were 2 fields owned and cultivated and 7 crofts, the number of which increased in two years to 13. The Polewskis owned this estate toward the end of the last century, then later the Sadowskis. Near Słupy a bronze urn and stone ax were dug up.  The church, under the patronage of St. Wit, Modest, and Krescencya, existed before 1399; at that time Wojciech, Kamień castellan, and Mikołaj z Słupów donated the village of Gąbin (Gombin), a mile from Słupy, to the church, and it is the property of the presbytery. Pastor Jan Prabucki erected a new, wooden church in place of the old one in 1730, and by 1840 a brick one stood on the spot.  The parish, numbering 1,857 souls, consists of: Antoniewo, Babiagać, Chraplewo, Cięźkowo, Dąbrówka, Katynka, Kowalewo, Królikowo, Piardowo, Słupy, Smarzykowo, Smolarnia, Wąsosz, and Wrzosy. There are parochial schools in Królikowo and Wąsosz.  Łaski writes of the presbytery's endowment in Liber Benificiorum, I, 144.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p. 862]

This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Summer 1996 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".

Słupy Duże - powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske (Russian Poland)

Słupy Małe - powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske (Russian Poland)



changed to Śnieciska - village, church and manor (folwark) in the Środa deanery about 5 kilometers north from Zaniemysl; it is bordered by Piglowicami, Polwica, Jeziora Wielki, Prusinowo, Winna and Placzki; the parish and a school are in town. The post office is in Zaniemysl; the train station is in Sroda 7 1/2 kilometers away. Snieciska used to be the property of the cathedral in Gniezno. The writing of Fr. Boleslaw from 23 April 1257 describes the privileges of the people who lived in Snieciska (ed. so they would have better treatment). Documentation from Krolewski from 1357 mentions Snieciska as one of the holdings of the cathedral in Gniezno. In 1578 Stanislaw Gunicki leased the property from the cathedral; there was evidence that 8 people worked there - 2 foreigners and 6 tenant farmers. In 1618 the property was leased to Grabowski from the Gniezno cathedral. After that the village was taken away by the Prussian government, and it went into private hands. The church, now named St. Jozef, was previously St. Marcin and existed before 1510. In place of the old one a new one was built by Fr. Francis Brzezinski; it was built from donations, and it was a wooden church. The Brothers of St. Joseph moved to the parish in 1678; the parish books go back to 1667. The parish consists of 1,100 people (souls) and includes the towns of Bozydar, Dobroczyn, Jaskowo, Loranka, Placzki, Polwica, Snieciska, and Winna. A school already existed in Snieciska in 1628 and in 1727. Under the village were found burial urns for ashes. Now the village has 15 houses, 134 people, all catholic, and 239 acres (morgs) including 198 fields for crops and 5 fields for grassland. The folwark has 12 houses, 212 people, 168 catholic, 44 protestant, and 404 acres of land (357 crop fields, 14 grass fields, and 1/2 acre of forest. The income from each acre of growing fields is 16.45 marks, from the grass fields in 30.94 marks (German), and 9.4 marks from the forest.They used to have a mill to produce alcohol. They have Netherland cows and also goats.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, pp. 874-75]


This translation, by Malgorzata Biela, is used by permission.


Sobiejuchy, Sobeiuca (year 1364), Szobyeyuchy (year1523), located between the Lakes Sobiejuskim and Drobrylewskim in the powiat of Szubin. About 7 km north of Znin where a Post Office is located. A Catholic Church St. Katherine’s of Alexandria is located in Brzyskorzystew a distance of 3 km. A railroad station is located at Wapne about 15 km distant and an Inn/Tavern (Karczma) and settlement at Obrona Lesna 2 km distant. Here is located the Manor Farm of Jaroslaw Jaracewski an area of approximately 858 hectares, 583 of which are open area, 85 of meadow and 41 of woods. In the year 1364 it was written that Mikolaj came through the area (Editors Note 1); in the year 1577 there was here two settlements belonging to Katarzyna Sobiejuska, one of 200 morgs. The other was 300 to 450 morgs and 8 zagr. (zagroda) a croft, a small farmstead with a courtyard, buildings, and gardens, without farmers. In the year 1579 there was 71/2 Slad on 700 – 1125 morgs a settlement and 3 zagr. (zagroda) a croft, a small farmstead with a courtyard, buildings, and gardens. In the year 1618 5-1/2 Slad 500 to 750 morgs a settlement, 4 zagr. (zagroda) a croft, a small farmstead with a courtyard, buildings, and gardens with farmers and 3 without farmers and 1(komornik) tenant farmer, peasant who boarded at another s home. About the year 1793 the village was inherited by the Zlotnicki Family.


Editors Note: Mikolaj… Stories abound on “the Bloody Devil of Venecja” – Mikolaj z Chomiazy (Nicholas from Chomiazy) who was the builder of the Zamek Venecja castle near Biskupin in the 1380’s. Mikolaj actually existed and was a Judge in the Kalisz region for some 20 years. It is said that his reputation comes not from the severity of his “Judgements” but the cruel and viscous manner in which he treated his subjects. Probably however he earned his name “Bloody Devil” after his feats in the 1383-86 civil wars between the magnate families. He is said to roam the castle dungeons at night!


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1889, vol. 10, p.942]


This translation, by Jim Piechorowski, is used by permission.


Sołowa, village, county (powiat) Przemyslany, 3 km from the village Kurowice (post office), 16.5 km from town Przemyslany. The manor owns 602 morg, peasants 627 morg. In 1870 the population was 453; in 1880 there were 460 people in the village and 65 in the manor. 105 Roman Catholics belonged to the parish in Wyżniany, 293 Greek Catholics to the parish of St. Michael in Kurowice. Parochial school. The heirs of the count Alfred Potocki are the owners of the manor which belongs to the Kurowice estate.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p. 66]


This translation, by Eva M. Zuber, is used by permission.

Srebrna Góra

In the past: Srebnagórka and Sebrnegórki, a village, church, and Manor Estate in Wągrowiec and Żnin powiats, in the deanery of Łekno, in Pałuki about 12 km to the south of Kcynia [Exin], on the road to Zernik, near the highway from Kcynia to Janowca, and near the railroad from Gniezno to Naklo, in the lowland enclosed by hills; there is a Catholic Church and School in this place, a Post Office and Railroad station at Damaslawku (Elsenau) about 5 km distant.


Between the years 1386 and 1399 it is written Mikolaj Srebrnogorski is in Srebrnagora; later the right of inheritance passes to  Andzej Smoszewski (in the year 1687) Anna (House of Skrzetuskick) Bojanowska (in the year 1762) and Aleksander Moszczenski, starosta bresko-kujawski, the heir to Stepuchowa (in the year 1793). Sebrna Gora is a town in the year 1458 and provides foot soldiers for the crusade on Malbork. (Kod. Wielkp. Racz., str. 181); later they return to the village. In the year 1557 it is a settlement of 18 lan; in the year 1579, 6 occupied Manors and one empty, 4 zagr. Or small farmsteads with courtyards and gardens, 1 tenant farmer and a windmill.


There is a Catholic Church Sw. Mikolaja existing from the year 1450; a new Church was erected of brick in this place when the old one burned in the year 1845-46 (ob.Laski,Lib. Ben., 138-140); Here was introduced the fellowship: The Holy Rosary and Sw. Benona. The parish list 1913 souls, comprised of the villages of Aleksandrowo, Mokronosy, Podolin, Smoszewo, Srebrnagora, Turza and Wapno. The Duke of Poznan; defined new borders between the Manor Estates and the village, that is the farms of Sebrnagora; some farms were left in the powiat of Wagrowiec, but a recently built Manor was included in the powiat of Zninskie.


The village of Srebrnagora now has 10 homes and 89 inhabitants, 225 hectares comprised of 177 of tillable fields and gardens, 28 of meadow. There is a Manor / Folwork Aleksandrow , made up of two Manor properties ; 14 homes, 226 inhabitants, (1 prot.) 768 hectares (520 of tillable fields, 116 of meadow and 31 of forest); clean profit from agriculture 13.32, from the meadows 13.71 and from the forest 3.52 German Marks; breeding and fattening cattle; the property is owned by Stanislaw Moszczenski


2) Srebrnagora ,  Wągrowiecki powiat, see Piatek E. Cal.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p.153-154]


This translation, by Jim Piechorowski, is used by permission.


Środa [Wielkopolska]: formerly Srzoda, Szroda, Szrzoda, Srzeda, Szreda, officially Schroda, a city and county seat [powiat] in the Grand Duchy of Poznan, 30 km. southeast of Poznan, on the Poznan-Kluczbork railroad line, on a stream that flows into the Maskawa River. Sroda lies at 52° 14' north latitude, 17° 17' east longitude, 77.414 meters above sea level. It has two churches (one Catholic, one Protestant), a synagogue, a hospital and convent of the Sisters of Mercy, a railway station, a telegraph station, a second-class post office, a municipal savings bank, Polish loan and industrial associations, Polish and German agricultural societies, 3 doctors, a veterinarian, a pharmacy, 3 agents, a headquarters of the national defense, 19th regiment, and 4 fairs. It is the seat of the county authorities, 2 district commissioners, a district court, and a Civil Registry office. Highways lead from the city to Kostrzyn, Poznan, Zaniemysl, Nowe Miasto and Miloslaw. Several local wells contain sulphur sections.

As of 1885 the city itself, the railroad station, Jewish cemetery, Plantaz, and sugar factory comprised the municipal district, with 296 houses, 991 families, 4,855 inhabitants (2,349 males and 2,506 females; 3,863 Catholics, 688 Protestants, 30 Jews) and 1,184 hectares (990 of farmland, 68 of meadows); the net income per hectare of farmland was 18.80 marks, and 20.76 marks per hectare of meadows... The population is primarily Polish and is employed in agriculture, retail trade, and industry. Jews are not tolerated in the city. Germans and Jews have appeared there only since the beginning of Prussian rule.

In 1578 the city paid a tax of 64 gold zlotys; the city's farmland included 42 traces of settlements. At that time there were in the city 18 butchers, 17 shoemakers, 16 tavern-keepers, 10 tailors, 9 landless peasant boarders, 7 furriers, 6 smiths, 4 coopers, 4 wheelwrights, 3 locksmiths and the same number of landless peasants, 2 each of linen drapers, salt dealers, and cap makers, one maltster, one stall-keeper, one cloth-shearer, one rope-maker, one harness-maker, and one saddler...

Circa 1795 Sroda had 1,009 inhabitants, 215 houses, a collegiate church, a chapel, a Dominican monastery, a customs-house, and 9 windmills; several years later there were 226 houses and 1,217 inhabitants (103 of them Jews), 40 shoemakers, 32 tavern-keepers, 16 tailors, 10 furriers, 8 millers and bakers, 7 linen-drapers, 4 musicians, 3 each of coopers, wheelwrights, and smiths, 2 each of potters, bakers of honey-cakes, cap-makers, dealers in oil, barbers, innkeepers, and dealers in iron, and a dyer, glazier, mason, locksmith, chimney sweep, and butcher. There were 12 fairs a year; income came to 963 talars, expenditures 997 talars [a coin = 3 German marks].

Circa 1809 there were 1,200 inhabitants (150 of them Jews); in 1837 there were 2,067 inhabitants, and in 1843 there were 210 houses and 2,183 inhabitants (1,534 Catholic, 311 Protestant, 338 Jewish). In 1858 there were 2,821 inhabitants. In 1871 there were 3,506 inhabitants: 2,680 Catholic, 498 Protestants, 328 Jews, 1,655 men, 1,851 women, 909 children below 10 years of age, 4 blind persons, 2 madmen, and 2 deaf mutes.

The church of the Assumption of Our Lady was in existence as early as 1276, because its priest is mentioned in the records. A new, Gothic-style brick church was erected in 1423 by Mikolaj of Kiki, Poznan canon and the local pastor, who elevated it to the rank of a collegiate church and established a rectory, dean, caretaker, and 7 canons there. This action was confirmed in 1428 by Stanislaw Ciolek, Bishop of Poznan. In the church are a bench and a column with an unreadable inscription dating from those times.

Documents from the year 1281 mention Kromolice (calling it Chomoruicze), a possession of the church, which was previously owned by the manorial farmstead called Topola ... The Confraternity of St. Ann has existed since 1640, that of the Scapular since 1663, and that of the Rosary since 1665. The Pepowskis added a chapel, that of St. Mary Magdalene, to the church; the Grzymultowskis adorned it, and the right of collation [the privilege of nominating a candidate for a vacant ecclesiastical position] belonged to the municipal authorities. Hieronim Gostomski built a second chapel in 1602, endowing it with Piotrowo and Daszewice, and conferred the right of collation on the Jesuits of Poznan. In the church and chapels are the tombstones of. Ambrozy Pepowski, Sieradz voivode (t1510); another Ambrozy, Sroda starosta (t 1571); Anna z Ostroroga (t 1584); and Urszula z Sienawy Gostomska (t 1589)...

The St. John the Baptist Church listed in the index to the Kodeks Wielkopolski (No. 1109) as being near Sroda refers to Krerowo, because in 1330 Jan, the Bishop of Poznan, transferred to the church in Krerowo tithes and other contributions collected from Sroda. Also existing at one time in Sroda, besides the collegiate church, were: Holy Spirit Church, beyond the Poznan gate, which was ruined after 1700-its beginnings supposedly went back to the year 1350; All Saints' Church, in Góreckie on the outskirts of town, from 1600 to some time after 1696; Church of the Immaculate Conception and of St. Idzi, on the outskirts of Pyzdry, from 1607 to some time after 1696; St. Sebastian Church, outside the city on the road to Gniezno, from ca. 1610 to after 1715. Holy Cross Church and the Dominican monastery were founded ca. 1420 by Jan of Opatowice, Bishop of Chelm (see Rev. S. Baracz, Rys. dz. zak. kazn.).

In more recent times, after monasteries were abolished, the Prussian government gave the former Dominican church to the Lutherans; the monastery was in ruins by the second half of the 18th century. The Sisters of Mercy of St. Vincent de Paul have a small convent and a hospital in Sroda. The hospital at Holy Cross Church existed ca. 1599. The parish school, mentioned in 1639, has undergone various turns of fortune; it was burned down by the Swedes, stripped of its teacher, and the like, and ca. 1784 came under the care of the municipal authorities.

The city was formerly surrounded by a wall and a moat, filled from a nearby stream. Information on the castle of Sroda in 1312 is based only on inference; there are no, details on the fate of the starosta's castle.

Sroda parish, numbering 7,718 souls, consists of: Anna, Annopole, Babin, Bojnice, Bukowy Las, Czartki, Henrykowo, Jaroslawiec, Kopaszyce, Kijewo, Marcelino, Mieczyslawów, Murzynowo Koscielne, Petkowo, Plawce, Podgaj, Polazejewo, Romanowo, Sabaszczewo, Slupia, Sroda, Streszki, Tadeuszowo, Topola, Wlostów, Zabikowo, Zberki, Zdziechowice, Zielniki and Zrenica. There is a branch church in Murzynowo. As of 1860 the Protestant parish, in 79 settlements, numbered 618 souls, alongside 10,355 Catholics. Parochial schools exist in Czartki, Jaroslawiec, Murzynowo Koscielne, Polazejewo, Sroda, Tadeuszowo, and Zrenica. The deanery of Sroda includes 14 parishes: Bnin, Koszuty, Krerowo, Kurnik, Maczniki, Madre, Nietrzanów, Niezamysl (Zaniemysl), Rogalinek, Smieciska, Solec, Splawie, Sroda and Tulce, as well as two branch churches, one chapel, 17 priests, 41 parochial schools, 5 ecclesiastical hospitals, and 33,356 souls. The parish of Rumiejki has vanished; Bagrowo and Murzynowo were incorporated into other parishes; there is a chapel in Rogalin. The deanery of Sroda encompasses the southern half of the county, extending west to Srem county.

On the 17th-18th of August, 1231, Wladyslaw Laskonogi died in Sroda. In 1233 the lords of Great Poland gave Sroda and Sroda district, along with other sections, to Henryk Brodaty [Henry the Bearded]. In 1253, as a result of the division of Great Poland, Sroda went to Boleslaw, the brother of Przemyslaw. In 1261 Boleslaw, son of Wladyslaw Odonicz, who was staying in Sroda, conferred on potters the rights of German law. In 1312 the Silesian princes divided Great Poland; at that time Sroda was the seat of a county or district. In 1331 the Teutonic Knights burned the city, sparing only the Church of Our Lady. In 1369 the starosta of Great Poland, Przeclaw, sold a lan of farmland in Sroda to the soltys of Murzynowo, granting him various privileges. Undoubtedly as early as then there were already starosta courts being held there; charters from 1378 and later sources confirm this assumption.

In 1370 a local wójt appears in records. About this time Sroda received a charter under German law from King Wladyslaw, who in 1402 allowed the townsmen to buy back Zielniki, which was pawned to Henryk of Zimna Woda for 800 grzywnas. In addition to Zielniki the city possessed Ruszków (1578-1793). In 1517 it bought the village of Urniszewo from the Poznan chapter, and later it acquired Zrenica. The starostas took both these possessions from the city. [Omitted: a long list of detailed events that would interest only the most devoted local historians].

On July 25th, 1655 the Swedish army marched into the city and looted it; the same thing happened again in 1703. The Sejm of 1773-1775 appointed a commission to settle the case of the noble Zablockis with Wasilewski, the pastor of Sroda, over the borders of Jaroslawiec and Urniszewo with Topola, Zielniki, and the city of Sroda (Konstyt., II, 283). In 1791 Sroda became the seat of a powiat comprising part of Kalisz province. After 1793 it was incorporated into the Poznan Inspectorate; during the time of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw it belonged to the departement [province] of Poznan, and in 1815 to the Grand Duchy of Poznan. Sroda took an active part in the movements of 1848.

As of the year 1662 the starostwo of Sroda consisted of. Kleszczewo, Murzynowc, (Koscielne), Sabaszczew, Sroda, Trzebislawki and Zrenica. In modern measures these settlements covered 3,997 hectares (1,793 of them manorial, 1,020 rural, and 1,184 municipal). The Prussian government seized Kleszczewo and Trzebislawki, with an area of 1,302 hectares. Napoleon I gave Murzynowo, Sabaszczewo, Sroda and Zrenica, with an area of 2,695 hectares, to General H. Dabrowski. In 1729 the starostwo (along with that of Odolanów) paid a lan tax of 400 gold zlotys, and in 1771 it paid a kwarta of 1,058 gold zlotys, 15 pence, and a hyberna of 1,895 gold zlotys, 20 pence. At the Sejm of 1773-1775 it was given to Gozimirski, Wschowa wojski, as an emphyteutic possession [a long-term lease or deed of unused property, requiring the owner to improve it]. Its starostas included: Ambrozy Pepowski, died 1571; Hieronim Gostomski, ca. 1602; Stanislaw Grzymultowski; Jan Cerekwicki, 1673-1674; Sylwester Sezaniecki, 1771; and Gozimirski.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, pp.159-165]


This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Spring 2000 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".

Środa powiat

Środa county [powiat] has existed in its current form since 1815; it extends between 52° 5' and 52° 35' north latitude, and between 17° 03' and 17°30' east longitude. To the north it borders on the county of Gniezno, to the east on the counties of Gniezno and Wrzesnia, to the south on the counties of Jarocin (formerly Pleszew) and Srem, and to the west on the counties of Srem, Poznan, and Oborniki. At its greatest extent north to south it is 53 km. long, and its greatest length east to west is 30 km. Its surface is flat, generally sloping toward the Warta River. Its highest elevation is the plateau at Gultowy. The banks of the Cybina and Glówna rivers, and the western banks of the Zaniemysl lakes, are hilly. [Omitted: a section describing various hills.]

The river Glówna, flowing out of lake Lednica, enters the county at Wojnowe, flows west to the Warta, and leaves the county at Holendry Kowalskie, having flowed about 15 km. The Cybina flows parallel to the Glówna, arising at the county's borders and leaving the county at the elevation of Swarzedz, having flowed 27 km. The Cybina flows from the Jezierce ponds, joins with a stream from Czachórki, and takes in the outflow of Lake Szkudelne and a stream flowing from Kostryn. The Maskawa begins at Wielkie Sierkierki, flows southwest, joins the Chrzascina at Tulce, below which it enters Srem county; past Kromolice it returns to Sroda county and changes direction, flowing to the southeast; having crossed onto the elevation of Nietrzanów, it flows west once again, and into the Warta near Kepa; it is strengthened by the Zrenica, Bardeczka, Szywra, and a stream flowing from Jaszkowo; its length is over 40 km. The Warta forms the county's southern border for the whole distance from Debno to Kepa ... There are sizable forests at Jezierce, Iwno, Nekla, and Zaniemysl. Fertile meadows unfold in the river lowlands. [Omitted: details on various rather uninteresting points of topographical interest].

Three railway lines cross the county: the Poznan-Torun line, with stations at Biskupica and Pobiedziska (for a distance of about 20 km.), the Poznan-Wrzesnia line, with stations at Kostrzyn and Nekla (about 33 km.), and the Poznan-Kluczbork line, with stations at Sroda and Sulecin (about 15 km.). The county's surface area covers 101,477 hectares (75,595 farmland, 6,627 of meadows, 9,844 of forests); average net income per hectare of farmland is 12.14 marks, 20.76 marks per hectare of meadow, and 3.52 marks per hectare of forest. This area is divided into two judicial districts, 6 police districts, 12 Civil Registry districts, and 4 municipal, 159 rural, and 108 manorial districts. As of 1885 it had 408 settlements, 4,767 hearths, 9,788 families, 52,939 inhabitants (25,181 men; 27,758 women; 9,211 children younger than 6; and 11,273 ages 614; 44,044 Catholics, 8,125 Protestants, and 770 Jews). In 1836 there were 38,267 inhabitants; in 1837 there were 40,788 inhabitants and 4,188 hearths; in 1843 there were 43,881 inhabitants; in 1858 there were 46,204 inhabitants (38,069 Catholic, 6,956 Protestant, 1,179 Jewish); in 1871 there were 50,079 inhabitants; in 1880 there were 52,633.

In the municipal districts there were 18 settlements, 780 hearths, 2,291 families, 10,673 inhabitants (5,036 men, 5,637 women, 1,679 children younger than 6 years of age, 2,178 from 6-14 years of age; 8,038 Catholics, 1,924 Protestants, 711 Jews) and 3,806 hectares of land (3,244 of farmland, 212 of meadows). In 1871 there were 8,860 inhabitants; in 1880 there were 9,970.

In the rural districts there were 208 settlements, 2,838 hearths, 4,890 families, 23,844 inhabitants (11,646 men; 12,198 women; 4,419 children younger than 6 years of age; 5,320 from 6 to 14 years of age; 18,918 Catholics, 4,880 Protestants, and 46 Jews) and 37,178 hectares (30,899 of farmland, 2,227 of meadows, and 515 of forests). In 1871 there were 23,612 inhabitants; in 1880 there were 25,506.

In the manorial districts there were 182 settlements, 1,159 hearths, 3,107 families, 18,422 inhabitants (8,499 men; 9,923 women; 3,113 children younger than 6 years of age; 3,775 from 6 to 14 years of age; 17,088 Catholics, 1,321 Protestants, 13 Jews) and 60,492 hectares (41,452 of farmland, 4,188 of meadows, and 9,329 of forests). In 1871 there were 17,607 inhabitants; in 1880, there were 17,157.

District courts are located in Sroda and Pobiedziska, and district commissioners in Nekla, Pobiedziska, Kostrzyn, Zaniemysl and Sroda; civil registrars are in Bronislaw, Jerzykowo, Kleszczewo, Krerowo, Kostrzyn, Michalów, Nekla, Pobiedziska, Sroda, Szlachcin, Wislawice, and Zaniemysl. There are 28 Catholic parishes: Bagrowo, Czerlejno, Gdecz (Giecz), Górka Targowa, Grodziszczko, Gultowy, Iwno, Kleszczewo, Kostrzyn, Koszuty, Krerowo, Maczniki, Madre, Nekla, Nietrzanów, Niezamysl, Opatówko, Pobiedziska, Siedlec, Siekierki, Smieciska, Solec, Sroda, Tulce, Uzarzewo, Weglewo, Winnagóra and Wronczyn; parishes in other counties are Kurnik, Slawno, and Swarzedz. Protestant parishes are in: Kostrzyn, Holendry Nekielskie, Pobiedziska, Sroda and Zaniemysl, and, beyond the county's borders, Bnin, Goslina Murowana, Miloslaw, Nowe Miasto and Wrzesnia. Jews have synagogues in Pobiedziska, Sroda and Zaniemysl.

The population is primarily Polish and Catholic, and is employed in agriculture, livestock, retail trade, and industry. Its dress and customs are the same as in the counties of Srem and Pleszew. The ratio between hereditary lands in the hands of Poles and those acquired by Germans is 136 to 93. In 1858 there were 54 Polish land-owning heirs and 10 German. German colonization acquired recently the estate of Piatkowo Czarne, 660 hectares in area. Of estates it has seized, the government owns:.Polska Wies (423 ha.), Strumiany (362 ha.), Weglowo (350 ha.), Trzebislawki (362 ha.), and part of the forestry station of Zielonka (2,218 ha.). The Sroda pastorate owns the manorial farmstead of Topola (152 ha.), and the Poznan seminary owns the village of Nadziejewo (449 ha.). Large-scale raising and fattening of cattle is done by almost all the manors. In 1837 there were 5,891 horses counted, 16,701 head of horned cattle, 95,220 sheep, 39 goats and 10,260 hogs. In 1858 there were 7,216 horses, 20,250 cattle, 112,909 sheep, 231 goats, 8,009 hogs, and 58 donkeys. There are breeding grounds for mares in Chwalkowo and Gowarzewo. Zielniki has a renowned pedigree sheepfold (Rambouillet); original Negretti are bred in Wyszakowo, and Cotswold sheep in Kopaczyce and Smieciska; here and there the Ramouillet and Negretti breeds are crossed. Hogs are bred in Borowo. Borowo, Kowalskie, Libartowo, Nagradowica, Pierzchno, Poklatki, Podstolice, Sarbinowo and Wydzierzewice produce dairy products. Annual income from government-owned forests (Jezierce, Pradno and Steszewko) between 1868 and 1871 averaged 17,322 marks. In 1858 there were 45 fruit-tree nurseries. Sizable fields of reeds are located in Wronczyn. Willows are planted in Murzynowo Borowe. Beets are cultivated in Babin, Chwalkowo, Maczniki, Orzeszkowo, Plawce, Polazejewo, Slupia, Ulejno, Zabikowo, Zdziechowice and Zrenica. The cultivation of hops and tobacco is gradually declining. The agricultural school was transferred from Wielowies Krotoszynska to Polska Wies near Pobiedziska. There are distilleries on 15 properties, steam mills on 4. There are also factories producing vinegar, starch, sugar (Sroda), and 6 facilities producing peat.

From 1578 to 1871 the number of shoemakers in the country rose from 141 to 152; the number of smiths from 1,221 to 1,335; wheelwrights from 25 to 59; carpenters from 44 to 52; leatherworkers from 12 to 20; coopers from 15 to 19; clothmakers from 16 to 17; etc. (The population is employed in weaving cloth as a sideline; in 1858 there were 769 weaving shops). During that time the number of brickworks declined from 25 to 11; water mills went from 16 to 11; windmills from 108 to 94. In 1871 there were 388 merchants, tradesmen, and agents, and 197 tavern-keepers; the Sroda savings bank had 416 members, and the one in Kostrzyn 173. The preceding statistics and other percentages for Sroda county are based on the 1858 statistical list... compiled by the royal landed proprietors' councilor Glaeser (in German and Polish). A similar list for the 1871 was not printed. [The rest of the entry is omitted because it deals mainly with when various villages are first mentioned in records, and which nobles owned them.] [E(dmund) Cal(lier)]


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, pp. 159-165]


This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Spring 2000 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


Starożreby, erroneously Starożeby and Starozęby, peasants village, manor farm and village of petty nobility, Płock powiat [county], Starożreby gmina [district] and parish, distant 23 versts [about 15 miles] from Płock, it has a brick parish church, an elementary school, a post office, an inn, a tavern, two shops, a windmill, 45 houses, 452 inhabitants, 2,614 mórgs [1] (426 mórgs waste lands), from this 1,171 mórgs belongs to the manor farm, 680 mórgs to its partial owners. In the year 1827, there were 24 houses, 185 inhabitants. In the year 1887, Starożreby manor farm had 1,171 mórgs open area; 870 mórgs arable land and gardens, 92 mórgs meadows, 2 mórgs pasture, 172 mórgs forest, 35 mórgs waste lands; 10 brick buildings, 15 from wood; 12 – field crop rotation, an unmanaged forest. In the composition of the estate went in the former: Starożreby village 56 settlements, 367 mórgs; Przedbórz village 27 settlements, 391 mórgs; Bromierzyk village 19 settlements, 24 mórgs. This village in 16th century passed into the possession of the Sobiejuski family crest Dołega. From here came Adalbert, Przemysl bishop, who is sometimes called Starożrebski. This bishop (died 1580) should be properly called Sobiejuski. His ancestors crest Dołega arrived here from Wielkopolska [Great Poland] (Sobiejuchy in Szubin powiat) and from their new abode were also Starożrebski (refer to Paprocki, Coats of Arms, 401). The founder of church and parish was the bishop possibly. Bromirska, heiress of the estate, recently upgraded it in the year 1859. Starożreby parish, Płock deanery, 1,021 souls. Starożreby gminabelongs to the gmina circuit court 3, it contains 309 houses, 3,413 occupants, 19,709 mórgs (1,169 mórgs waste lands). In the gmina are; a church, two schools, a post office, two water mills, four windmills. The composition of the gmina includes: Begno, Bromierzyk, Bylino, Falęcin, Nowawieś, Opatówiec, Ostrzykowo, Płonna - Pańska, Płonna – Szlachecka, Piączyn, Pomianowo - Dzirki, Przedpełco - Włosty, Przedpełco - Kiełbasy, Przedpełco – Witkowiec, Przedpełco – Kościełki, Przedbórz, Rogowo, Szlacheckie, Rogowo – Falęcin, Starożreby, Słomkowo, Sarzyn, Szulbory, Włóki, Zdziar – Gosąwski, Zdziar – Krawięczyn, Zdziar – Łopatki, Zdziar – Mały and Wielki, Zochowo, Zochówek. Br(onisław) Ch(lebowski)


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p. 267]


This translation, by Mark Kaszniak, is used by permission.


1 and 2, two villages in Grodno county, in the 5th police district, Jeziory gmina, 20 versts from Grodno.



Stryjówka, a village in Zbaraż county, 10 kilometers southeast of Zbaraż (where the county office and a post office are located). To the north lie Zbaraż, Hrycowce and Łubianki Wyżne, to the east Jacowce, to the southeast Bogdanówka, to the south Kujdańce, to the west Zarudzie and Wałachówka. Several streams flow from the northwestern part of the area, forming a pond from which a stream flows to the Gniezna river. The stream Rudka (a tributary of the Gniezna) flows through the southwestern section. The waters from the eastern sections are collected in the stream Samiec (a right tributary of the Zbrucz). The village’s buildings are located to the west. To the southeast is a group of houses called Góra Stryjowiecka, to the north of which is Karolówka, to the northwest Macimówka [sic, this is probably the settlement called Maksymówka in a Słownik entry on page 937 of Volume 5], and farther to the north is Czahary. In the center of the village is Mt. Monaster (408 meters). To the southwest is the mountain Góra (393 meters). A railroad runs through the village. The major estate has 1,349 mórgs of farmland, 154 of meadows and gardens, and 7 of pastures. The minor estate has 4,795 mórgs of farmland, 527 of meadows and gardens, 131 of pastures. In 1880 there were 298 houses and a population of 1,580 residents in the gmina [district], with 11 houses and 47 residents on the manor’s grounds (765 Roman Catholics, 774 Greek Catholics, 88 Jews; 1,018 Ruthenians, 600 Poles, 9 Germans). The Roman Catholic parish church was in Zbaraż; there was a Greek Catholic parish in the village, belonging to Zbaraż deanery. Ochrymowce, Zarudzie and Wałachówka belong to the parish. In the village is a Greek Catholic church, a state school with two classes, a gmina loan association with capital of 2,191 złotys, and a mill. [Lu{dwik} Dz{iedzicki}].



(German name Striowken), a village in the district of Grudziadz, attached to Adamowo in 1875, on the highway from Gruziadz to Chelmno, served by the post office in Grudziadz and the Catholic parish in Sarnowo; previously it belonged to the county of Chelmno. It has 274.79 Magdeburg morgs; in 1868 there were 31 buildings, 13 houses, 75 residents, 1 Catholic and 74 Protestants.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p. 440]


This translation, by Ludmila Pieczatkowska, edited by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.


1) formerly Sobkowy, German Subkau, in documents dating 1282 Sobcouo, Schobkow, Schobkow, Sopkow, Zopcow, an ecclesiastical village in Tczew powiat, 11 km. south of Tczew, by the eastern railway and the Tczew highway, on both banks of the stream Drybok (Drebeck), a tributary of the Vistula, amid the fertile Gdańsk lowlands.   It contains 21 peasant settlements and 26 farms, a total of 1,260 hectares (20 of meadows, 1,133 of cultivated land).  In 1885 there were 93 houses, 253 chimneys, and 1,134 inhabitants, 986 Catholic, 145 Protestant, 3 Jewish.  In the village is a 3rd-class post office, a 3-grade non-denominational school (in 1883 with 3 teachers, 182 children) and the Catholic parish church of St. Stanislaw the Bishop.  By the church is a hospital for 5 paupers, a Rosary confraternity (from 1720) and a Sobriety brotherhood (from 1857).  The parish consists of: Subkowy, Małe Slońca, Maly Garc, Wielkie Słońca, Radostowo, Starzęcin, Brzuszcz, Warcimierz and Warcimierek, Gniszewo, Czarlin, Wielgłowy, Narkowy and Gorzędziej (branch church).  In 1867 the parish, belonging to Tczew deanery, numbered 3,762 souls, whereas it had 3,356 in 1889. The brick church has a presbytery with a beautiful stellar vault; the sacristy, vestibule and treasury date from ca. 1300, whereas the belfry and nave with wooden ceiling come from the second half of the 14th century.  Noteworthy among the artistic relics are an eightarmed chandelier from 1710 and a large bell from 1499 (see Bau- und Kunstdenkmale der Provinz Westpreußen, pp. 254-256, also given there is a sketch of the church).   The pastors here [as their names appear in sources] were: 1) Johannes, plebanus in Sobcow (Pom. Ur. B. von Perlbach, No. 670), 1309; 2) Jan Butow, 1483; 3) Bartłomiej a Biecz, 1578; 4) Wawrzyniec Smugatius, 1635; 5) Marcin Śmiglewski; 6) Albert Józef Korpalewski, Tczew dean, 1682; 7) Jerzy Piotr Jesionowski, 1693; 8) Ignacy Rogaczewski, 1716-in 1718 he became the pastor in Skórcz; 9) Franciszek Ruthen, 1718; 10) Paweł Lazarowicz; 11) Tomasz Muchowski, Tczew dean, 1750 (see Borek; Echo sepulchralia II, 618-621); 12) Wincenty Ignacy Schultz, 1780; 13) Andrzej Pomieczynski, 1848; 14) Aleksander Pomierski, 1861-1889; 15) Wojciech Ziemann, 1889.   As of 1687 the parish numbered about 600 souls.  The pastor owned 4 włókas [1 włóka = about 16.8 hectares, but this varied from one area to another] and 3 gardens; the teacher was the organist; there were 2 paupers living in the hospital (see Wizyt Madalińskiego, pp. 48-49).  In 1710 the village contributed a Mass tithe of 32¼ bushels of rye and the same amount of oats from 64½ włókas; the pastor was supposed to collect 100 florins from the manor, but the money was not paid at that time (see Wizyt Madalińskiego, pp. 167-169).  In 1780, besides the places named above, the following belonged to the parish: Brzeźno, łowiguz, Fyszbudy, and Kępa.   In the whole parish there were 2,141 Catholics and 46 non-Catholics, no Jews.   In the church library were the sermons of Faber, Steyn, Chleb duchowny, and others.   The pastor was Wincenty Ignacy Schultz, Włocławek and Kruszwica canon and official of the Archdeanery of Pomerania; he stayed mostly at Szotland near Gdańsk, where he maintained two curates.  Subkowy had 650 inhabitants (645 Catholic) (see Wizyt Rybińskiego, pp. 39-5 1).

History.  Subkowy, a "villa perampla" [very large village], as Borek writes, is among the oldest settlements in the area. During the reign of the Pomeranian princes Subkowy belonged to the Kujavian bishops.  In 1282 Mestwin transferred this village and several others to Bishop Alber (P. U. B. von Perlbach, No. 341).  Previously it had belonged to Michal, who, having switched sides during Mestwin's war with the Brandenburg margraves and joined his enemies, was exiled and his estates seized.  After Mestwin's death the family took steps to regain the property. During Przemyslaw's first stay in Pomerania in 1295 Michal's sons, Mikolaj, Jerzy, and Rudolf, along with their sons-in-law in Świecie, filed suit against the Kujavian bishop, Wisław.  But Przemyslaw ruled against them on the basis of Mestwin's document.  Subsequently, however, in 1300, Bishop Gerward paid Michal's three sons 60 grzywna in denarii, for which they renounced all claims to Subkowy.   This payment became the cause of a third suit in 1334 by Jerzy's sons and relatives, who showed some letter allegedly proving that the bishops held Subkowy only in pawn. The Świecie judge Jan decided in the bishop's favor. From then on Subkowy remained peacefully in the bishops' possession until the annulment of the clergy's estates. In 1290 bishop Wislaw acquired Chelmno legal status for the village from Mestwin ("jure Theutonico locandam", see P.U.B. v. Perlbach, No. 465).  Its incorporation ensued in 1301.  In that year Bishop Gerward bestowed the office of soltys of Subkowy and Swaroz|yn on Henry, son of the Gniew soltys, and Jan de Lywnow for 92 grzywna in Torurn currency, for the purpose of settling this village under Chelmno law.   The soltysi could possess 4 free wlókas and an inn, from which they were to pay 1 grzywna a year in St. Martin's honor. They were also to judge all matters, lesser and greater, but in the presence of the bishop's representative, and to keep for themselves every third penny from the fines... [Omitted: a long passage describing in detail feudal fees, tithes, and conditions of land ownership in the area during the 14th century. This material might be fascinating for students of medieval real estate and tax policy, but is unlikely to interest many of our readers].

It is clear from the documents that all the Pomeranian estates of the Wloclawek bishops were given to settlers. Only from the 16th century do we possess names of Subkowy's settlers, who leased the area near Narkowy (see Vol. VI, p. 911).  The audit of 1760 reports as follows regarding Subkowy: the Subkowy demesne in Tczew powiat had 3 folwarks, Sobków, Milobądz and Mieszczynin [sic; this appears to be a variation of the name of the village Mieszczyn, which is presumably the village now called Mieścin].  In Subkowy the 2-story brick palace rebuilt by Bishop Rozrażowski was tiled. There were 7 inns in the demesne: a) one in Sobkowce [sic] in the middle of the village, with a wlóka of land free from taxes, the property of Wróbel, who received it from Lichota along with a 1678 grant from bishop Sarnowski; b) a second one at the same place, private property; c) one in Malinin; d) one in Mieszczyn; e) one in Milobądz; f) another in the same place; g) one in Brzez|no.  Beer was taken to these inns from the Sobkowy [sic] and Milobądz brewers, as well as distilled spirits from Subkowy.  The meadows and pasture-land in this demesne covered 588 mórgs.  There were 6 soltys properties: two in Sobkowce [sic], one in Malinin, Milobądz, Brzez|no and Mieszczyn, each with two wlóka's. The soltysi collected taxes from the peasants and were obligated to send out a mounted messenger with letters.  There were no forests in this demesne, straw and peat were burned. The villages in this demesne were: Subkowy, 68½ wlóka's; Brzez|no, 18; Milobądz, 29; Malinin, 26; Mieszczynin, 13.   Reverend Sikorski, a scholastic, leased this demesne for 14,000 Prussian zloty's (see Majątki biskupie by Rev. Kujota, p. 59).  A note in Documenta varia (manuscript in Pelplin, p. 74), undoubtedly dating from the 18th century, states: "This village was founded by the Teutonic Knights on 80½ wlóka's, of which the castle possesses 12; the curate 4, free from taxes, the soltys also 4 taxfree wlóka's; each of the two inns has 1 wlóka, and the remaining 58½ are sown by the community of the whole village" (p. 74).  The local manor, which is splendid, was for a long time a sort of second residence of the bishops to whose diocese the Pomeranian archdeanery belonged.  They enjoyed staying there, especially after the people of Gdańsk burned the bishop's palace at Górce, near Gdańsk, in 1414.  At the beginning of the 14th century the Brześć wojewoda Albert visited the bishop here, and was named as a witness in the records of a suit from 1339 (Scr. rer. pruss., I, 793).  During the siege of Malbork in early August 1410 bishop Jan received the Gdańsk ambassador Konrad Letzkau.  It was surely due to the bishop's influence that Gdańsk shortly afterward swore allegiance to the king (see Zeitschrift des westpreußischen geschichtlichen Vereins, 16, 68).  In 1626, during the first war with Sweden, King Zygmunt III and his retinue stayed with the bishop.  More than once new priests were ordained in the spacious local church, and 10 times the whole Pomeranian clergy gathered there for diocesan synods.  A separate home for the correction of the clergy was located by the bishop's residence.  The bishop's steward or starosta, usually some sort of church official, always resided there.  It was partially exempted from the tax on crops and poultry from the bishop's estates.   Today only traces of the bishop's palace remain, and the bishop's chapel was destroyed as well (Utrac. kościoły ks. Fankidejskiego, pp. 75-76).   According to Adlerhold the palace was already built by the 14th century, in the days of Charlemagne, by the Kujavian bishop Maciej I (1323-66), and later restored by Bishop Rozrażewski (1581-1600).

2) Subkowy, manor, same place, Radostowo gmina, parish church in the village of Subkowy; 4 houses, 35 inhabitants.

3) Subkowy, a fiscal demesne, same place, 1 km. from the manor, 258 hectares (219 cultivated, 15 meadows); in 1885 there were 8 houses, 20 chimneys, 118 inhabitants, 96 Catholic, 22 Protestant; cattle cultivation and a dairy.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p. 519-521]


This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Fall 1996 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


- is a small town on the Gawia River in the 3rd police district of Oszmiana province, comprising a gmina and rural districts. The town lies 29 mi. distant from Oszmiana, 9.3 mi to Dziewieniszki and 80 mi to Wilno; it contains 39 homes with 347 inhabitants (according to the 1882 tax census, it had 523 inhabitants). In the town are a Roman Catholic church, the gmina administrative center, and a public school (in 1885 it had 56 peasant boys and girls attending). It also has a post office station on the highway to Soly and a Romanesque stone railroad station, a mill, and a brewery. The parish church (under the patron St. George), was built of wood in 1636 by Duchess Albrechta Radzwił. According to Korjewy, the church was founded in 1573 and restored in 1755. Belonging to the Wiszniew deaconate, the Catholic parish has 4,593 faithful, with another affiliate church in Lazduny, and chapels at Kaplica and Kwiatkow having a total of 8,856 parishioners. The town is now the property of Umiastowski. The Subotniki rural district is comprised of the town of Subotniki as well as the villages: Annopol, Bo2owki, Czechowka, Dowgialowszczyna, and Nickiewicze, from which 285 land-holding peasants and 17 tenant farmers were identified in the 1865 revision lists. The gmina reports to the 2nd peace court for peasant affairs, as well as the 3rd conscription district. It it is divided into 5 rural districts: Subotniki, Kudcjsze, Huta, Zalesie and Wodol, embracing 42 populated locations, 520 homes and 4,881 peasants. According to the 1865 lists, there were 2,593 land-owning peasants and 49 tenant farmers.


Additional Slownik information on Subotniki from Volume XV:


SUBOTNIKI- Otherwise known as "Old Gieranony", it is a town in Oszmiana Province. In 1492, it belonged to Sofia (nee Monwid) Nicholas Radziwill and remained with the Prince Radziwill clan until 1805. Prince Albrecht Radziwill founded the Catholic Church of St. George there in 1573 (with suitable renewal funding including 600 acres of grounds, 3 enclosures, 3 public houses or taverns/small inns, [ed- ** 10-ta**? translated as substantial portions] of the courtly grain produce provided from every tillable acreage, and free grinding of grain at the local mills. Around 1774, Jerzy Abramowicz erected a new wooden Catholic church. Subotniki mortgaged its estate (up to 1712) to the Neswisz Dominican order, redeeming it in 1747. Restitution was accomplished in 1747 by the Radzwill known as "sweetheart", the mortgage to Jerzy Abramowicz costing 68,152 zlotys. The "dear princess" [ed-- **Ks. Panie Kochanku**] assumed the mortgage in 1762 for the sum of 90,653 zlotys. There were at the time 73 households in the little town. In 1805, Prince Dominick Radzwill sold Subotniki to Jacob Umiatowski for 38,000 gold zlotys and paid the sum of the mortgage to Abramowicz. Across the Gawja River from the town on the left bank, are a mound and "kurgan" [ed. burial tomb] in the vicinity, having a circumference of about 40 fathoms (240').

Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p. 522-523; 1902, vol. 15, p. 629]


This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.


or Sadlowice, formerly Szawlowice, called Savlowycj in a document from 1282: an ecclesiastical village, pastorate, estate and settlement, Inowroclaw powiat, 7 km. northeast of Inowroclaw (post office and railway station), halfway to Gniewkowo, on the Poznan-Torun railroad; there are a parish and school in the village.

In a 1228 grant Conrad of Mazovia gave the Dobrzynski brothers Dobrzyn along with a bit of land on the right bank of the Wisla [Vistula river], part of Dabie opposite Dobrzyn, and Siedlce (Sedlce, Sedlec) near Inowroclaw (Dogiel, Cod. dipl., IV, 5); Pope Gregory IX confirmed this grant (Theiner, Mon., 1, 17).  What puzzles us in this list of settlements is the 10-mile jump from Dobrzyn in the area of Inowroclaw, but later grants of privilege bring us back close to Inowroclaw.  After joining with the Teutonic Knights the Dobrzynskis gave them their possessions.  In 1234, by virtue of Conrad of Mazovia's treaty with the Knights, they retained Siedlce, Orlów and Rojewo (Perlbach, Pr. Reg., n. 140). In 1237 Kujavian bishop Michal attests that the Teutonic Knights, instead of a tithe from Siedlce, were to pay an annual rent of 3 grzywnas to the church in Kujavian Wyszogród (Perlbach, Pom. Urk., 52, and Kod. Dyp. Pol., II, 13).  It is this Siedlce of the Knights that the editors of the codices see as today's Szadlowice near Inowroclaw; but in 1282 Szadlowice's name was in the form Szawlowice. So this conjecture is without foundation.

Szadlowice at that time lay within the castellanate of Inowroclaw; its owner was the castellan of Wizna, Mikolaj, who gave it to the Wloclawek bishop Alber in exchange for Powsin in Czersk district (Kod. Dyp. Pol., 11, 103, and Damalewicz). In 1583 there were in Szadlowice 14 peasant fields, 2 soltys fields, 2 komornik fields, a zagrodnik, and a craftsman; the parish included Wiotesy or Wioteszki, no longer in existence. The Kujavian bishops owned Szadlowice up to the collapse of Poland; it was then seized by the Prussian government and incorporated into the Gniewkowo district office, then into the Inowroclaw demesne. St. Bartlomiej's church was in existence before 1597; a new, wooden church was erected in 1763 by Antoni Ostrowski, bishop of Wloclawek, and Jan Borucki, the local curate. The parish (in Gniewkowo deanery), numbering 1,000 souls, consists of: Edwinowo, Latkowo, Raclawice, Skalmirowice, Slofisko, Szawfowice and Wi~ckowice. Since 1797 the Brothers of Divine Providence have been at the church. The village and pastorate form a circle [or "district"] with 32 houses, 371 inhabitants (348 Catholic, 23 Protestant) and 556 hectares (447 under cultivation, 80 of meadows). The manor of the bishops' grange has 6 houses, 113 inhabitant (97 Catholic, 16 Protestant) and 260 hectares (238 under cultivation, 7 of meadows); there is a cattle-lot.  The settlement of Szadlowice (4 houses, 60 inhabitants) is part of the Wierzchostawice manoral region. Edmund Callier.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [Vol. 11, p. 763-764]


This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Winter 1996-97 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".

Szczawnica Nizna, Miedzus, Wyzna

Two villages well known for climatic and health spa in administrative district (pow.) Nowy Targ, under 38° 9' long geographically from F and 39° 25' North width.


Szczawnica Nizna is at the stream Russia also known as Grajcar (rt side in flow of Dunajec) and on stream Slotnica (inflow of Russia Stream). The lowest point of the village is 427 meters above sea level. Hard road is extended to west along right side of Stream Russia goes to Miedzus Valley, where the lower health spa is. Near gardens and wooden single or doubles houses like in Switzerland style, reaches road to the higher health spa, further to east you will come to valley known as Szczawnica Wyzna.There is a wooden church and beautiful small palace together with farm houses and farm equipment.


Szczawnica Wyzna lays at the inflow of Stream Sopotnica to Russian Stream (470 meters above sea level). In the valley of both villages and health spa to the west surrounds magnificent strand Pieniny Mountains, to the south between Dunajec and gorge Poprad starts borderline between Galicia and Hungary. From north Szczawnica Wyzna is hidden by nests of mountains without specific name. They are covered with forest bog. These nests are scattered between Dunajec and Poprod, looking from South Nowy Sacz Valley. As you walk from West to East you will come upon tallest points which are Blisur(833 meters), Zwonkowka (984 meters) Obidzna(892m.) Skalka(1198 M) Prehyba Wielka(1195m), Radowa (1265m). These high points stretch about 4 to 6 klm apart from Szczawnica. They protect the warm climate from north winds.


To the south from Szczawnica toward the east stretches steep mountains, Siodelki where upon evergreen grows and in between down below you can see hills with leaf forest. These hills protect Miedzius from South and they end at Polanica- a dome-like mountain. From Polanica to north of Szczawnica and Nowy Sacz hills is a beautiful view and to south of villages from Hungarian side. From Polanica to East is the tallest Jarnula (817m) and from here to south east is Rabszlyn (899m) together they look like ruins of the ancient castle.


From Rabszlym to east and south of Jaworki village stretch limestone mountains Skalka (1052m) also known by common people as Little Pieniny. Closer mountain from southside is volcanic Bryjarka with steep peak covered with snap -off rocks. From the health spa the peak can be seen from all sides, with the help of Father Kazimierz Skrzynski a huge iron cross on top, which was built in 1865.


The view to the west is cut off by Sokolica which is to the left of Dunajec. Szczawnica Nizna in 1880 yr had 132 houses and 732 people. (345 men & 369 women); 692 Roman Catholics and 21 Jews. Szczawnica Wyzna with majority of land had 387 houses; 1441 people (708 men & 733 women); 1318 Roman Catholics, 16 Greek Catholics and 106 Jews.


Mountain people known as "Spiszcy Gorale" were Christians. They dressed in their goralskie costumes which were very colorful.


Wlodyslaw & Tylus Szalaya owned most of the land; 1772 morgs ( unit of land in Galicia- 1 morg= 1.422 acres) From this they had 122 mr of farmland, 161 mr fields, 3 mr fenced and 10 mr pasture, 1471 mr of forest. Concrete one story palace with wooden pavilion in Swiss style and there was a garden ,very well kept that surrounded the manor house. There was a small pond with artificial fountain. There are beautiful and unique trees:


Sycamore, Tulip tree, Life tree, Sumac, Copper beech, American pine, weeping ash. Further away is a church , a rectory and houses built from wood covered with wooden shingles facing south with large windows to let the light shine in and the farming buildings. Sometimes these houses have more than one room so that they can be rented to visitors if the spas don't have enough space.


Country folks had 1337 mr of farmland, 682 mr fields mostly on flat land between the mountains. They were called polany: 732 mr pasture land on hills of mountains and 2278 mr of forest.


Only wild oats grew in this soil, unless soil was prepared very well. Then rye and barley may grow. Wheat seldom grew. Village had school, mill, sawmill and brick foundry. At the health spa was post and telegraph office. Beside the church that was erected in 1550 there are 3 chapels:


At Miedzius, at the high spa and at cemetery and soon a concrete church will be done between two villages; at high spa and Miedziusu.


Long time ago black smith shop existed in Szczawnica in which multiple and bigger steel projects were done. Somehow it closed now. Up to 1870 this parish belonged to Kroscienko. In Polish and Latin curious documents from XIV exist that Wyszga lord Janina owned Czorsztyn, Rytra and Lyemyansz Castle. Written about dug-out gold mines in Pieniny, he writes about Szczawnica (a Crosczenko dug-out at Szczwania Wyzna). Długosz (writer from Krakow) doesn't mention anyplace about Szczawnica.


In year 1550 parish was erected at Szczawnica. In chronicle that was written in 1581 (Pawinski,Malopolska 145) writes that Szczawnica has only 5 1/2 Lan(a field cultivated about 40 acres in size) Kmieci and 4 zagrodnikow with no land.


Up to 1811 all this belonged to castle and ancient nobility of Czorstyn. Szczawnica is 7 kilometers from Kroscienko, from Piwniczna,16 km in straight line. Till today the road is bad because of steep hills, the road that is plotted will be 20 klm from Stary Sacz in straight line is 20 km.


The road goes alongside of Dunajec and because of winding of the river has 41.2 klm.


The shortest distance through Kadcza and Obidza has 30 klm long, steep and rocky and difficult. The spa started in 1828 yet it existed before that just as the village Szczawnica. There are 7 springs: Jozefin Szczepan discovered in 1838 by Josephine Szalaya (died 1838) owner of the village and builder of the spa.


Magdalena 1838 & Waleria done in 1840. Four of the springs are in the high spa at the foot of Swiatkowki.


This mountain is volcanic and trahit. Trahit contains dark brown substance. Szymon Spa known from 1840 and Wanda done in 1866 were two of the oldest discovered places. Closed today are Helena & Aniela and they are the lower spas known as Miedzuis.


Besides 6 spas there is Jan at Bryjak , dug-out in 1889 and is protected from flow of sweet water, the basis is 7.50 meters deep and l.50 m in radius, but is not used because water was not tested. Just because all spas belong to one section or institution of Szczawo. The most unusual water is in Szymon, because of the iron in the water. water in all springs has no color-crystal clear in container in open space it boils with gas bubbles; coal acid in water evaporates. Water in Josephine and Waleria is salty and bitter; water in Magdalena &Wanda is saltier; in Szymon is bitter. Walerias water is moderate. Water has no odor yet when it is sunny up in Szymon & Waleria waters have the smell and in Szczepan smell is like old eggs.


Beside Szczawnica waters , climate in Szczawnica is very good. Protected winds and not too high above sea level surrounded with evergreens with moisture in territory its very pleasant. June & July it not hot like below in cities, rains come often, daytime & nighttime temperature doesn't get much above 6- 8 c. June through September are the best, the altitude pressure is not noticed only moisture is in the rain because of rains, Dunajec River and multitude of streams & springs. Plants are in exuberance. Storms seldom come, ozone is high. Air is clear like a climate in Alps. Doctores prescribe Szczawanica for patients after long illness for road to recovery.


In 1890 meteorologists noticed that from 21- 31 May there were only 2 days of rain, 21 days in June, 14 in July and 12 in August. From 1-20 September, 15 days of rain yet the total of rain didn't go above 3 mm. per day.


Besides the air and spas for health purposes there is bathing in Dunajec. There is hydropathic of Kolaczkowski at Miedius .During bathing there are 11 physicians, drug store and bacteria lab.


There are two owners of spas: Miedzius , longtime ago belonged to partnership of country health club now Franciszek Tomank leased it for 20 years from Dr. Kolaczkowski and the High spa was given to Academy of Krakow by Jozef Szalaya, with obligation to pay sons half of net profit.


Both places contain 22 workshop houses and 23 private larger houses w/500 rooms. Village has few houses just for clients, so the total of rooms add up to about 800. Most of these houses have spring mattresses. After patients and clients leave the rooms they are disinfected. Price of room is 80 ct to 2 zloty a day. In year 1890 between May 20 and September 20 there were 3408 people- among them were 1616 ment, 1444 women and 348 children under the age of 14.


There are 11 restaurants with three pastry shops connected . People from private homes shop in cities. To earn money 302 people were hired in order to take care of and cure people with mental problems.


There are beautiful parks, while strolling in it orchestra plays twice a day, concers and play rooms are available.


Library and reading rooms with 30 different languages. There is small hospital for poor people an orphanage for children. Nuns take care of it.


Also patients with serious illness are visited at private homes for relaxation of mind and body. There are strolls through Szczawnica Nizne near the Dunajec up to bridge near Kroscienko or hills above Dunajec. The best are the mountains or Bryjarka Swiatkowka, Polanica and Jarmula: a view from them is breathtaking. It takes 3-4 hours for the trip. For longer trips there is boat riding on Dunajec to ancient ruins, from 1765


The Czorsztyn Catles rocks are chipping off or to Niedzica Castle into Hungary to Pieniny, to Korona Mountain, to castle of St. Kunnegunda built to unreachable rock in Siodetka, Sewrynowke, to Luoobli, Szmeksu and at last to Tatra Mountains. Usually the trip to Czerwony Klasztor(Abbey) and Smierdzwczki an acid spa bathing at Spisz, then at the end you can return to Szczawnica in canoe. Closer details contain writing of Wlodyslaw sciborski in "Przewodnik do Zdrojow Lekarsluch in Szczwania "Krakow 1877" also Sprawozdanie" given to Academy in Krakow,Dr. Trembecki, Sciborowski, Lielniewski wrote also loose articles and more important works about Szczawnica.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p. 822-825]


This translation, by Rose Sz#zech, is used by permission.


Szczcepanowo/Schepanowo (German)

In the past known as Szczepankowo, Sczepancino. In the year 1345 it was know as Sczepancovo. In the year 1357 there was a Catholic Church and a small settlement in the region of Mogilno . The Church was part of the Deanery of Znin. About 5 km to the south is a Post Office in Barcin near the Lake and on the road to Mogilno. It is near the villages of Szczepankowo and Wojcin. There there is a parish school. There is a railway station in Janikowo (Amsee) within 15 km's distance. The greater village consists of 46 houses and 547 inhabitants, there is also a smaller rural settlement of 31 houses and 155 inhabitants. In total: 77 houses, 702 inhabitants (439 Catholics, 255 Protestants, 8 Jews). It consists of 578 hectares of which 547 are dedicated to general agriculture. In the year 1331 the Knights of the Teutonic Order destroyed the Church in Szczepanowo. In 1345 the Church  was part of the Deanery of Gniezno. Wincenty dedicated (gave) Szczepanowo village to soltys (village administrator) Witalis, son of Zbilut, so that it might gain potential settlers (settling according to the Magdeburg Laws). The village of Szczepanowo was an ancient possession of the nobility of Gniezno, confirmed in the year 1357 by King Kazimierz Wielki (1333-1370). About the year 1361 there came into being a second settlement called Szczepankowo Mlode (Kod. Wielkp.). In the year 1577 Szczepanowo was comprised of about 10 slad (1000 to 1500 morgs) and 2 peasant farmers with farm buildings and gardens. Near the village were dug up a large cemetery and cinerary urns. According to legends, about 100 "kmieæ"s (farmers with min. about 40 acres' land) were said to live there, among them many bee-keepers. Local population recalls Polish and French Armies' marches. In the Year 1331 a Catholic Church under the patronage of St. Barthelemy must have already existed. In the year 1848 a new Church of brick with a decorated steeple was built. Parish priests' possession is described by Łaski (L.B., I, 182-3). The Parish numbering 2935 people comprised of the villages of Annowo, Biale Bloto, Bielawy, Bielawki, Chomiaza, Ksieza, Kierzkowo, Krotoszyn, Krzekotowo, Krzrkotowko, Mikolajkowo, Radlowo, Rydzek, Slawoszewo, Slawoszewko, Stary Dwor, Szczepanowo, Szczepankowo, Szeroki Kamien, Wiktorowo, Wojcin and Wolica. A branch of the church is to be found at Wojcin. The Parish Church in Kierzków no longer exists. Parish Schools are in Slawoszewo and Szczepanowo. Szczepanowo was incorporated  by the Prussian Government into the domain of Mogilno. E. Cal.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p.845]


This translation, by Jim Piechorowski, is used by permission.


Szczebrzeszyn – Formerly called Scebresinum. A city on the left bank of the Wieprz River, in the District of Zamosc.  Located at 50 degrees 41 minutes north latitude and 40 degrees 37 minutes east longitude. It is on the beaten path to Zawichost, hugging along the riverside, closed on the West by a steep slope, then known as Szczebrzeszyn Hill, actually a jagged, deep ravine of the Lublin Highland, coming into the territory between Goraj and Szczebrzeszyn from 1000 to 1500 feet above sea level.  The Wieprz Valley rises about 700 feet.  The river is only navigable beyond Krasnystaw.  The Wieprz River beyond Szczebrzeszyn is 7 fathoms wide.  In time of flood, water covers the meadows to a half the river’s width.  There are at this place two bridges on the dams connecting Szczebrzeszyn with the village of Brody.  Szczebrzeszyn lies south west of Zamosc, about 20 kilometers away; to Janow Ordinance about 42 4/3 kilometer; Bilgoraj, 32 ½ kilometers; and Krasnystaw, 40 kilometers.  The nearest railway station is situated on the Vistula River in Rejow, about 59 ½ kilometers away.  It is about 105 kilometers to Lublin and about 12 kilometers to Zwierzyniec.  It possesses a brick Catholic Church, a brick chapel of St. Leonard at the cemetery, two orthodox churches, a synagogue, and two houses of prayer, a general hospital of St. Katherine with staff of doctors, a disabled home, school with 2 classes, City offices, post office and since 1887 a telegraph, notary public, pharmacy and 38 shops.  Of the established factories there is a water mill, 8 quarries, an American cylinder plant with a production of 2,700 pieces, a fulling press and a black and gray coat factory for the peasantry with a production of 900 pieces annually.  The residents are occupied primarily in agriculture, and the Jews in trade and factories.  There are 18 shoemakers, 8 blacksmiths, 2 makers of table linen, 2 cabinetmakers, 2 saddlers, and a few tailors, service providers, weavers, coopers, potters, and tanners.  Their production barely meets the areas needs.  Szczebreszyn is in a picturesque, fully lush green position, the centerpiece surrounded by woods and walled manors with gardens form the town center formed by several winding unpaved streets (Szkolna, Turobinska, Klasztorna, Cerkiewna, Parkowa, Zalylna, and Bilgoraj), in addition Zamoyski Street which is the main thoroughfare connecting Szczebreszyn with Zamosc and Zwierzyniec.  In the center of the city square stands a spacious one-story brick house, called Oberza (The Inn), in a part of which until 1876 was located the court room for the District of Zamosc.  The castle burned in 1583 and of the former city walls; there remain only the picturesque ruins. The remnants of the city gates remained in use until 1840, when the new city hall was built.  Of the castle there only remains one dungeon. Dikes surrounded the town. Szczebrzeszyn with it adjoining suburbs of Blonie (of Zamosc), clings lengthwise along the Wieprz River to the manorial farm of Bodaczow, Zarzecze and Szperowka, with its manorial farms, which since 1876 belonged to the Justice of the Peace, Branch I in Zamosc. Presently the city has an area of 4565 morgs, 236 rods. Of this area of land, 3319 morgs are under cultivation, 588 morgs are meadows, 104 morgs are barren, buildings occupy 548 morgs, and 5 morgs are covered by water. Former jurisdictions of Szczebrzeszyn are: the Franciscans, which included part of the manor (today owned by L. Sajkiewicz) having 109 morgs and part B of the estate (18 settlements, 81 morgs).  The Rector is the actual owner of Part A, which has 5 settlements and 30 morgs, and Part C, which has 63 settlements and 132 morgs. The area’s soil is clay, on layers of bedrock and chalk. The meadows are abundant, but the forests are not found in the city. In 1827, Szczebreszyn had 499 homes, and 3233 inhabitants: in 1832 there were 3453 inhabitants; in 1860 there were 4018 inhabitants (2162 were Roman Catholic and 1683 were Jewish); in 1875 there were 4753 inhabitants in 1878 there were 433 homes of which 66 were brick and 4750 inhabitants. In 1881 there were 463 homes (42 brick), 5064 inhabitants (2667 were Jews). In 1885 there were 433 homes (39 brick), 5129 inhabitants (2381 Jews). In 1888 there were 448 homes (54 brick), 5264 inhabitants (2398 Jews). In 1890 there were 5418 inhabitants (912 orthodox and 2429 Jewish). In 1878 the income to the city amounted to 2544 silver rubles, 46 ½ kopeks and in 1887 the income was 2191 silver rubles. The old settlement of Szczebrzeszyn formerly belonged to the administration of the former region of Chelm. It actually belonged to the administrators of the castles guarding the settlements located in the Wieprz Valley. For certain back to the times of Kasimir the Great. The land grants of Krasnik and Goraj in 1377, was from King Ludwig Dymitri and the Ivanows (Kodeks Malopolska, Vol. III, p. 310) has no mention of Szczebrzeszyn. Wladyslaw Jagiello confirmed the afore mentioned grant. The charter was granted in Krakow in 1388 giving the Dymitri of Goraj perpetual title to the entire District of Szczebrzeszyn with jurisdiction (super vassal – with complete authority over district justice). Paprocki gives his knowledge in a document published in 1399 about this Dymitri beginning with “Nos Dimetrius de Goraj et in Szczebrzeszyn haeres” (This Dymitri of Goraj is the heir to Szczebrezeszyn). This act gave a certain Cedzik Prochanski the villages: Gruszka and Zaporze; “ratione servitii in terra Chelm”[for services rendered in the land of Chelm]; two villages in the vicinity of Szczebrzeszyn. After the extinction of the heirs of Dymitri the estate was sent as a dowry to the house of Leliwit of Tarnow, Rozyca of Krzepic, and the Toporczyk of Terzyna. Szczebrzeszyn was then given to Jan Amora of Tarnow. It is said that the town charter was given by Wladyslaw, Prince of Opole at the time of his rule over the Russians. Jagiello in confirming the grant to Dymitri, granted the town certain freedoms. Jan of Tarnow instituted at the Szczebrzeszyn the market on St. Agnes Day in 1472, in which he freed purchasers of all duties and tolls. Piotr and Stanislaw Kmit of the coat of arms Szerniawa confirmed this privilege to Szczebrzeszyn. After them the Gorka took over as lords of Szczebrzeszyn. It was they who introduced the Orthodox Church, certainly transforming the former Roman Catholic Church here under the Calvary Order, who also operated the school. Residing here for a time: Stankar and Cruciger. Andrzej Gorka received a grant in 1560 on the Friday before St. Matthew’s Day, in which he received the suburbs of Blonie and Zarzecza for life, according to the Magdeburg Law. It was a model formerly how the town was ruled and how revenue was to be collected for the town’s governance. This Andrzej Gorka was interracial Chancellor, Starosta of Gniezno, Walec and Jaworowo, and was truly a feudal baron in the entire vicinity. In the castle of Szczebrzeszyn he held court for the district regarding land and groves in the name of the heirs of Szczebrzeszyn and the having the nobility in his possessions as his vassals. This feudalism was still continuing in full force at the end of the XIVth century. Then Jan Zamoyski acquired certain villages in the District of Szczebrzeszyn from Anna Niedzwiedzska, Countess of Gorka in consideration of serious interest in the country, the purchaser was released from her jurisdiction. On the first day of September, 1583 a fire broke out in the castle of Szczebrzeszyn during the night, so violent that the Starosta of the castle with his family had to flee to be saved. All the records and documents of that time were destroyed. So Gorka requested that King Stefan renew the grant of jurisdiction as a vassal, which was supported conclusively and adjudicated by various court records. Convinced of the desire to be of service, and convinced that it was the right thing to do, on 12 December 1583 the King gave in Lublin a confirming grant and renewed the former grant. Through him, Andrzej Gorka and his lawful successors received title for all time the heir ship of the castle, the town and the entire district with freedom to exercise jurisdiction over his vassal subjects, to appoint judges of suits, according to the former custom as it was observed at this time, with terms (in utroque foro, tam Terrestri quam Castrensi), and to maintain authentic records, except in Szczebrzeszyn which would past to the higher national court, officials, and perhaps a tribunal. From the magistrate records we have information about yet other grants. 1) A grant to Andrzej Gorka heir of Szczebrzeszyn, given on St. Matthew’s Day in 1586, which renewed the grant according to the Magdeburg Law, replacing the one burned in the castle in 1583, and at the same time setting free residents from dike reparations and duty on transport of grain. It provided for the raising of rent together with the suburbanites, discussed any nature of difference, such as their dedicating 6 days of work and the contribution of 10 kops of grain to the larder of the manor from every field and unit of cultivated land. At the same time it prohibited Jews from purchasing goods for the village. It gave the Town Council the power to judge Jews, their arrival to help in case of fire, and how long the would serve. Eventually the old obligation was met, entrusted to the mills, of which one third part of the income was intended for the village treasury, as well as, the income from bridges, measures, weights and booths. The city officials in all manners and nature released authority to the harvest of the fields to one called Radziecki, 2 morgs of their holding, the place occupied by the manor, and other fields near the mill. 2) Stanislaw Gorka, son of Andrzej confirmed that from 9 January 1595 the former grant was restated in addition that the resident of every half-unit of cultivated land (32 acres) be obligated to work 6 days and contribute 10 kops of grain, while they render payment of 12 groszy for every half-unit, and residents ho this nature of work is allowed to be released pay 20 groszy per half-unit. 3) It was confirmed by Zygmunt III on 25 March 1597, the force of which prohibited Jews from receiving taxes, and keeping journals. 4) Confirmed by Jan Zamoyski, hetman and Chancellor of the Crown, on 27 August 1598 approving that all former privileges to the city of Szczebrzeszyn, as well as, permitting free cutting in the forests to the heirs of the residents for building and fuel, collection of payments for collecting honey. It also permitted the substitute payment of 10 groszy instead of the required amount of oats, and the amount of oats that would be required. 5) Confirmed by Tomasz Zamoyski on 26 August 1629 approving all previous grants to the city. 6) Confirmed by the same on 26 June 1643, permitting residents to build themselves a simple city square. 7)Confirmed by King Michael Korybut on 25 August 1673 permitting residents to distill and sell vodka, for payment from each batch of 1 Polish Zloty and 3 groszy, as well as, allowing previous grants to the city of Szczebrzeszyn. 8.) Confirmed by Jan Zamoyski on 21 May 1700 permitting residents to prepare ham by home owners and to distill vodka for the payment of three Polish Zloty to the Treasury. 9) Confirmed by King August II on 12 July 1729 to institute three new markets: on St. John the Baptist Day, on the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and on St. Nicholas Day. The Guilds of Szczebrzeszyn received their original grants from Jan Zamoyski in 1661 and 1694, which was given to clothiers, shoemakers, and coopers, which identically permission for students, journeymen, and masters, regulates the course of study to achieve mastery, and assessing the payment of penalties for disobedience and bribery. It allowed at the of a market (fair) traveling handcrafters with similar wares to sell a small quota as will as from amateurs. Earlier, it was forbidden within a mile of Szczebrzeszyn. Currently purchasing wares and handcrafts are allowed. The town of Szczebrzeszyn as governed under German Law, had its own town court composed of the chosen Counselors and landowners or other just persons, but the records of these courts have disappeared. After the Gorka, Szczebrzeszyn came (between 1595 and 1598) into the possession of Chancellor Jan Zamoyski who incorporated it into his ordinances.  Szczebrzeszyn and its area came under his control, which covered the area to the northeast toward the hills. The following are from the remembered facts. When the Confederacy of Doves granted the suspension at Lublin (10 November), adjourning their meeting to Warsaw on 4 January 1673. With the victory (over the Tartars)by the army of Hetman Sobieski, with the King in the lead, they joined forces against the Confederacy of Doves and the Confederacy of Szczebrzeszyn (23-24 November 1672), which was in defiance of the authority of the hetman and the freedom that was faltering there. It was written of him: he was field hetman and uncle of the king, as well as, standard bearer of the kingdom. After the first Partition of the Republic, Szczebrzeszyn fell under the reign of Austria and was denied a charter as a city, and was conveyed to Lwow. The church and Roman Catholic parish was established here under the patronage of Diymitri of Goraj in 1397. It was converted to a Protestant church, but returned the appearance of a Catholic Church under the care of Zamoyski in 1593. The present brick church, with its tower is dedicated to the patronage of St. Nicholas, was erected between 1610 and 1620 by Mikolaj Kislicki, first dean of Livonia, colleague of Zamoyski, Pastor of Szczebrzeszyn. The Church was fully consecrated by Jerzy Zamoyski, Bishop of Chelmno, in 1620 on the third Sunday after Pentecost. It is not of great dimensions, in the addition are several buttresses to reinforce the outside and altering the previous structure. On the exterior horseshoe wall of the presbytery, facing the front on Zamoyski Street, is an alcove with a picture of St. Nicholas in fresco. On the area surrounding the picture are river stones, with several coats of arms, and Latin writing, which is very obliterated. In a few side altars are new paintings by Rafal Hadziewicz. The bell tower in detached. In the cemetery for the town, on a hill stands a chapel under the patronage of St. Leonard, erected in 1812. People of foreign origin revere the picture of St. Leonard. To the parish and deaconate of Zamosc belongs the town of Szczebrzeszyn along with the suburbs of Blonie (of Zamosc) and Zarzecze, also the villages of Brody, Czarnystok, Deszkowice, Kaweczyn, Kawecznek, Kulikow, Lipowiec, Michalow, Obrocz, Rudka, Sulow, Sulowek, Topolcza, Trzesiny, Wywloczka, Zwierzyniec (with a chapel) Zurwanica, Zrebce, the manorial farm of Bodaczow, all together with 9307 souls. In 1874 there were 8234 souls and in 1879 there were 8511 souls. The Orthodox Church (Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary) is brick, and was established by Gorka, whose corpse is found here in a crypt under the church. It was renovated at government cost in 1868 and again altered in 1876. The Greek Orthodox parish until 1867 belonged to the deanery of the same name. The pastor and deacon (the last Al. Gorski) lived in a nearby Orthodox village of Rozlopy. Presently it belongs to the deanery of Zamosc. In 1869 the parish numbered 242 men and 238 women, a total of 480 souls. A second orthodox parish was formed in 1888, from the Holy Trinity Church at the Convent of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent De Paul. The church with lofty tower is on a hill, reached by several stone block stairs. Jan Zamoyski originally established it as a monastery for the Franciscans. It was endowed with a unit (64 acres) of cultivated land and extensive gardens, which at one time with the monastery building were strung along the Wieprz River surrounded by a high wall. The date of its erection and consecration are not given and were not searched for. Later the Franciscan Church and monastery were given to the Franciscans of Zamosc with their beautiful festivals, the Austrian authorities used it as a barracks. This monastery had a short existence, because in 1873 it was already abandoned. These declines lead to the fall of the building surrounding the hospital. Also at this time the church in 1812 was given to the Sister of Mercy imported from Zamosc, who came here in 1784. They occupied the building and church under the Hospitalers of St. John of God (currently the town club), inheriting also 31,000 Polish Zloty invested by the Labunski’s, which paid them an annual interest of 800 Polish Zloty. The Sisters of Mercy possessed until 1864, the manors: Wolka Panienska, Kalinowice, and other inheritances for the Hospitalers of St. John of God, the Franciscan Sisters, and the Franciscan Friars. They received these from public offerings. There was a decline in personal monasticism, so that in 1874 there were 5 sisters, and by the time of the closure of the church and convent in 1883 there were only three sisters. The Hospital of St. Katherine had 30 patients. Originally in 1812 they were not so numerous. Just recently, Count Andrzej Zamoyski became the shepherding president of the afore mentioned institution, creating a trust of the known funds. In 1845 he expanded through his governance the  monastery building’s spacious hall, first in area and secondly in the number of stories.  With strong laws, (1870) about the establishment of this charitable hospital, in 1870 it was remitted to the guardianship of the governing Council of the Powiat of Zamosc with additions to its constitution to reflect this intent.  Through the Sisters of Charity it was their only obligation to tend to the sick. On 10 May 1883 it was entrusted to the Sisters of St. Elizabeth. In 1879 an ambulance was established here for transporting the sick, with the granting of free medical care to the poor. In addition, 3 morgs and 150 rods of fruit orchards along the Wieprz river, were placed in (1887) the hospitals capital assets which included: in the State Exchange Bank of Warsaw, 39,990 silver rubles 3 kopeks at 4%; at the Mortgage Bank, 11,517 silver rubles and in the treasury 1,981 silver rubles 99 kopeks, for a total of 53,489 silver rubles and 2 kopeks. Among the budget items for 1887 were income of 6,233 silver rubles, back rent of 4,551 silver rubles, and expenses of 5969 silver rubles. At the same time as the expansion of the hospital, (1845) Count Zamoyski organized a school in two halls with a closet, presently the residence of the superintendent.  Existing here since 1845 is a refuge home for the elderly poor and the disabled, both funded by Count Andrzej Zamoyski, possessing (in 1888) 38 Prussian morgs of arable land and meadows and 792 silver rubles in capital.  From the owned fields and meadows, it has an annual income of 137 silver rubles; and from the home 50 silver rubles.  In the reports for 1887, there was an income of 250 silver rubles and expenses of 130 silver rubles.  The poor Jews here have a small shop at No. 14, bequeathed by Icek and Berka Feldman, yielding 50 silver rubles in annual rent.  Established for the care of children, the Powiat Welfare League was provided a fund of 4819 silver rubles.  Attending the Szczebrzeszyn schools, which were not as far as the academies in Zamosc.  Then in 1809 Zamosc affirmed a change and the building of the academy and later the high school, formerly the District School, were occupied for use by the military.  Count Stanislaw Zamoyski established the Szczebrzeszyn School, which came in various phases and various names: lyceum, high school division.  Afterwards the District School and lastly the elementary school,  named after Zamoyski, which endured until 1852.  The Zamoyski Schools were endowed with a strong foundation and fee tail that served: Gruszka Zaporski, Podlesie, Zaporze, and Gaj; as well as, Branewka, worth 75,000 silver rubles, which is an accolade to Count Zamoyski that he portioned out for the upkeep of the Zamoyski Elementary School.  Under this arrangement, thousand were able to attend this school.   It continued it obligation under a new arrangement with the Curate of regional Education of Warsaw from 1 (13) May 1848.   On the occasion of the ascension of Czar Nicolas I, on 6 (18) July of that year, the Zamoyski fee tail in the Mortgage Bank guaranteed a perpetual payment of 6000 silver rubles annually for the benefit of the afore mentioned school. Ceding at that time the main building, two opposite side buildings, and 30 morgs of ground for these buildings, and entrusting the rights to them to the Curate and Supervisor.


The later died while serving and left only the Curate as the honorary heir. The school before long was closed. It then discharged its 6000 silver rubles in annual provision which was in the state budget as income for the for the High Council for the established military training under the line item, “grant from special source.”The capital of the school was placed for interest and safekeeping in the bank, and amounted to 10,935 silver rubles. The main building, out buildings and gardens were given to the ownership of the state, and served as barracks.  It belonged to the Military Building Administration  of the Department of Warsaw, and its standing superintendent.  Professors of distinction in the school were: Franciszek Kowalski, prose and poetry ; Adolf Kudasiewicz, grammar; Bazyli Kukolnik and Ignacy Rychter, bibliography; Teodozy Siercinski, grammar and pedagogy; Jan Zienkowski, agronomy; and Josef Zochowski, naturalist.  The school here paid a small amount (24 zloty annually), cheap board, and select teachers were always overcrowded with students.  The grammar school here was advertised in print in Warsaw from 1834 to 1844, “the announcement of the solemn closing of the school year.”  It first existed as a 4 class private boarding school run by Teofila Reder.  This establishment developed the earlier reputation of the town.  Szczebrzeszyn is the birthplace of many scholarly persons among whom were the renowned Wojciech Bazeusz, Latin grammar in the XVI th century; Josef Brandt, artist and painter; Kohen (Isachar Ber, XVIth century scholar of the Talmud; and Jan Siestrzynski, philanthropist, physician, educator, and one the of the first Polish lithographers.  Szczebrzeszyn deanery, Diocese of Chelm was formerly divided into 13 parishes: Bilgoraj, Branew, Kossobudy, Lipsko, Otrocz with chapel in Tarnow, Potoczek with chapel in Szewno, Siedliska with chapel in Boratatychew, Sol with chapel in Majdano Ksiezopolski, Suchowola with chapel in Krasnobrodo, Szczebrzeszyn, Terespol, Topolcza, and Zlojec.By T. Zuk


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, pp.827-830]


Researchers of town: Paul Valasek


This translation, by Jerry S. Kucharski, FIC, FICF, appears by permission. All rights reserved.

Szczuczyn [now Shchuchin, Belarus]

This entry refers to a town formerly in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but now in Belarus (some very near the border with Lithuania). Poland proper has several Szczuczyn's, so it's important not to confuse them with this place.


Szczuczyn, 1)  called Szczuczyn Litewski, "Lithuanian Szczuczyn," a town on the Szczuczynka river, in Lida powiat, in the 3rd political district, center of a gmina and rural district, at 53° 36' north and 22° 18' east, on the mail route from Wilno to Grodno, a distance of 52 km. southwest of Lida [now in Belarus] and 146 km. from Wilno [Vilnius, Lithuania]. It has 123 houses, 1,088 inhabitants (as of the year 1866), an Orthodox parish church of brick, a Catholic church, a Jewish house of prayer, a parish school (78 boys and 6 girls in 1885). It is the site of the headquarters of its political administrative district and of its gmina, and has a pharmacy, a post office, a market every Sunday, and fairs on August 15 and October 16. The Catholic parish church of Jesus Christ was built of brick in 1829 by Prince Drucki-Lubecki. Before that there was a Catholic church in Szczuczyn made of wood, St. George's, which eventually fell into ruin. The Catholic parish, in the deanery of Lida, has 2,057 faithful. It had a chapel in Jatwisk. The Orthodox parish, Szczuczyn deanery, has 901 faithful. The Orthodox deanery of Szczuczyn [the exact term is blagoczynia, in the Orthodox church a provostry], comprises 10 parishes: Szczuczyn, Dziembrowo, Dzikuszki, Glebokie, Orla, Ostryna, Rakowiec, Sobakince, Turejki, and Wasiliszki, and it includes 10 Orthodox churches, 9 chapels, and 25,795 souls.

The gmina belongs to the 2nd district for peasant affairs, 2nd conscription district, and the 2nd judicial district, consisting of three rural districts (Szczuczyn, Krasne and Iszczolno), with 56 inhabited localities, 412 homesteads, and 6,596 peasant residents. The rural district includes the town of Szczuczyn and the following villages: Bale 1 and 2, Bartosze, Bujwicze, Dogi, Dubrowlany, Gierniki, Kulaki, Lack, Micary, Murawiówka, Nowosiolki, Ogrodniki, Planty, Podgajniki, Rogacze, Rzeszotniki, Topoliszki, Turówka, Worony, Wyzgi, Zaguny, Zarzecze, Zylicze, and the colony of Turya, for a total of 836 souls as of the year 1865, according to the rewizja.

Szczuczyn formerly belonged to the Scypio family, who, according to Balinski (Star. Polska, III), supposedly endowed a Piarist college and founded schools there. A 1726 resolution confirmed the Piarist college in Szczuczyn, and gives the name of its founder as Hlebicki-Józefowicz, Polock wojski. The Piarists settled near the parish church, and, with the permission of the episcopal consistory, took possession of the secular priests' parsonage with all incomes and buildings. The Piarist college in Szczuczyn was quite prominent, and supported a Piarist seminary and academies, in which even Oriental languages were taught. In the year 1755 the college president was Lukasz Rosocki, professor of oriental languages. The other professors were: Kanty Wykowski, history; Józef Szaniawski, theology; Eustachy Kurowski, moral studies; Wincenty Kloss, natural history; Józef Ketrzynski, logic and metaphysics; and Wojciech Komorowski, elocution and poetry. In the year 1742 Teresa Scypio, née Hlebicki-Józefowicz, the wife of the castellan of Smolensk, established a congregation of the Sisters of Charity there and founded a hospital. The educational committee for organizing national schools elevated the Szczuczyn school to the rank of sub-faculty [podwydzialowy] with three classes. After the Scypio's, Szczuczyn was transferred to the princes Drucki-Lubecki, in whose possession it remains to this day. - J[ózef] Krz[ywicki]


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p. 864-865]


This translation, by Barbara Proko, first appeared in the Summer 1998 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America".


2.) -in 1145 Selevo, 1357 Schlewo, 1361 Szelewo, 1580 Sielewo; village in Mogilno County, 3 Km south of Gasawa (parish and stagecoach station at the old Gniezno macadam road. School on the spot, railway station in Mogilno 16km. Together with Roza Gora and Budy Szelejewskie makes a rural district of 52 homes, 417 inhabitants (367 Catholics, 38 Evangelics and 12 Jews), has 108 3 hectares (813 arable land, 86 meadows). Royal land was granted to men of merits since Mieszko I, earliest written record known 1145.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, pp. 888-889]


This translation, by Alice Nelsen, is used by permission.


Szlichtyngowa, also called Szlichtyngowo, Szlychtyngowo, German Schlichtingsheim, a town in Wschowa county in the Grand Duchy of Poznan, 12 kilometers southwest of Wschowa, mid-way to Glogowa, on the river Kopanica Wschowska (Landgraben), a right tributary of the Odra, on the Silesian border, 2.5 kilometers from the Odra and the mouth of the Barycza, in a fertile lowland that rises to the north and east, surrounded on those sides by 20 windmills. It is the administrative center of the district commissary and has a Civil Registrar’s Office ; it has a Protestant church, a synagogue, a post office, 4 markets annually, 146 hearths, 261 families, 922 inhabitants (454 males, 468 females; 114 Catholics, 787 Protestants, 21 Jews) and 14 hectares (2 of farmland). It is served by the Catholic parish in Hincze, and a Protestant congregation in the town; there is also a post office in the town. The nearest railway stations are in Wschowa (Fraustadt) and Glogowa; from Szlichtyngowa highways lead to Drazyna, Sworzen (Schwusen), Wschowa and Glogowa. The town’s seal presents the Szlichtyng family’s coat of arms: three black deer horns in a white field; on the shield is a helmet with three feathers, white, black and white, next to which is the year 1645. The population, almost completely German, is occupied in retail trade and industry; the Jews are gradually leaving the settlement, in 1765 they paid a poll-tax of 160 zlotys.


Circa 1793 there were 748 inhabitants in Szlichtyngowa, 137 hearths, 10 barns, 21 windmills, a customs house, a horse-drawn mill, a malt-house, a school with 2 teachers and a Protestant church with 2 ministers. The local lord was Count Schwenitz, called Baron Schlichting; the town kept 2 guards; income was 250 talars. In 1860 the Protestant parish numbered 4,655 souls in 15 settlements, along with 1,068 Catholics; the church was built at the same time as the settlement. By 1793 there were 773 inhabitants in Szlichtyngowa (134 of them Jews), several maltsters, 21 millers, 16 tavern-keepers, 10 bakers, 6 clothiers, 5 carders, 5 butchers and 5 merchants, 2 coopers, 2 linen-drapers, 2 furriers, 2 carpenters, 2 locksmiths, 2 barbers, 1 lathe-turner, 1 painter, 1 mason, 1 saddler, 1 dry-goods merchant, 1 innkeeper, 1 organist and 1 doctor.


In 1811 there were 796 inhabitants; in 1837 there were 952; in 1843 there were 961 (57 of them Catholics, 794 Protestants, 110 Jews); in 1861 there were 1,102 inhabitants; in 1871 there were 1,023 (101 Catholics, 889 Protestants, 33 Jews).


Szlichtyngowa was founded by Jan Jerzy Szlichtyng, Wschowa’s district judge, on the basis of a charter from King Wladyslaw’s (dated July 22, 1644 in Krakow), on the area of Gorczyna, bringing in German Protestants who had been persecuted during the Thirty Years’ War, and giving them a locational charter dated July 11, 1645, written in the German language and modeled after Leszno’s. When Frederick II set higher duties for seized Silesia, which he had seized, Szlichtyngowa attracted Jews and became a nest for smugglers.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego, Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p. 959]


This translation, by Jadwiga Serkis, edited by William F.Hoffman, is used by permission.


Szlichtynie, a village in Telsze county, in the 2nd police district, 38 versts from Telsze [now Telsiai, Lithuania].


Szlifiernia, a mill settlement over a river with no name, in Piotrkowski county, district of Parzniewice, parish of Bogdanow, with 1 house, 5 inhabitants, and 39 morgs of land. It was was part of the estate of Parzniewice.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego, Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p. 959]


This translation, by Jadwiga Serkis, edited by William F. Hoffman, is used by permission.


Szreńsk, in times past Szreńsko, a municipal settlement, previously a city, on Mławka river, near the mouth of the Przylepnica (Szronka). Extending on its west - north sides (up to żuromin) a swampy and wooded plateau (part of the upland Prussian lake district [1]). Szreńsk lies at the confluence point of brooks taking away waters from this area in the Mława powiat [county], Mostowo gmina [district], Szreńsk parish, 23 wiorst about 15 miles] distant from Mława, near the road from Sierpc toward Bieżuń to Mława. It has a brick parish church, a synagogue, a gmina circuit 2 court, a gmina office, an elementary school, a post office, a drugstore, a brewery, three mills, ten inns, 203 houses, 2,476 inhabitants, 165 agricultural settlements and 2,047 mórgs of land belonging to townsmen. The area of this same settlement totals 281 mórgs (83 mórgs waste land). A market every Thursday; up to four fairs a year. In the year 1827, there were 126 houses, 1,666 inhabitants. Today this is a quiet settlement, built-up of wooden one-story cottages (very few brick). Where the former town hall stood, today is a dom zajezdny [short-stay hotel]. The only remnant of the past, the old church with interesting tombstones. On the place were the old castle stood, today is a brick house. The Szreńsk estate was assembled in the year 1883 from Szreńsk or Przychód manor farm, formerly called: Grabowo and Górka Zielińska, open area 1,236 mórgs, arable land and gardens 378 morgs, meadows 531 mórgs, pastures 106 mórgs, forest 148 mórgs; in settlements 5 mórgs; water 17 mórgs, waste land 52 mórgs; 10 brick buildings, 12 wooden; 5 and 8–field crop rotation, a managed forest. The make-up of the estate came from the following: 165 Szreńsk city settlements, 2,047 mórgs; 25 Przychód village settlements, 48 mórgs; 14 Kupki village settlements, 47 mórgs; 45 Mostowo village settlements, 350 mórgs; 10 Krzywki Biźki village settlements, 8 mórgs; 12 Krzywki Piaski village settlements, 50 mórgs. Szreńka is an old settlement. The gród at this place is already mentioned in a document of endowment of monastery in Mogilno in the middle12th century, by Bolesław Curlyhead [2]. Ziemowit, Mazovian prince, bestowed this gród with adjoining estate to a certain Grad (Grath) from Kowalew, in the second half of the14th century. The same prince's son, also called Ziemowit, confirmed his father's privilege in the year 1388 and the granted the settlements at this place the Chlem law instead of Polish. In the year 1397, Ziemowit confirmed in Płock that Stanisław Grad from Kowalew was granted by this father the right of collecting tariffs in Szreńsk. Waggoners from Masovia or different sides, crossing through Szreńsk or within the distance of a mila [about 4.6 miles] from the city had to pay a duty under punishment of confiscation of their goods. He also freed the townsmen from payment of duties when passing through ducal estates. Zymunt I [3] confirms this endowment in the year 1526 in Danzig (Lustracja [4], IV, 29 and Mazovian Codes, 121). For their new abode, the Grads adopt the name Szreński. Mentioned above Stanisław Grad presents an interesting example of longevity. He dies (in the beginning 14th century?) after 140 years of life, having attained the high rank of Mazovian voivode. The tomb inscription quotes Paprocki [5] and the tomb describes blessings. His grandson, Stanisław Feliks (who died in the year 1554 after 52 years of life as the Płock voivode, provinces Malbork, Wiżneń, Łomża) built on the place of the old gród a new, impressive castle, rebuilt and widened the church in year 1531. Supposedly, after the death of the Szreński family line, he acquired the city and property of the Płock bishop, Noskowski, for his sons. At the end of the 17th century, Szreńsk belonged to Jana Fr. Bieliński, miecznika koronny [royal sword-bearer – see note 6], who in the year 1680 (after destruction of the city in previous wars) in a decree he says: "and that various craftsmen from Prussian lands will settle down, I pleasantly wish to all unius religionis ortodox. rom. cathol. [religious unity between the orthodox and roman catholics], should however dissidentes [differences] exist between them, to harm them is dumb, as also exercitium divine service of theirs as they celebrate, from nobody do they want to have trouble, one street for Jewish building itself demonstrates, so that they themselves do not mix between market houses and the Christians. In the year 1768, the Seym, after efforts made by the primate Podoski [7], ordered the Płock starosta, that in the zawkrzeńska lands, the Szreńsk grod appoint from its clerks, a podstarośi [8], scribe and regent, so established that the cases of the three powiats in the zawkrzeńska lands would be judged. At the time of the Bar Confederacy [9], the famous commander Sawa-Caliński incurred a massive wound here in a skirmish and having been captured died soon after that; he is buried near Przasnysz. The parish church is an interesting relic of past, founded supposedly in 14th century and widened and rebuilt in year 1531, consecrated again in the year 1564 by Peter, the Płock sufragan [103]. The prominent feature of the primitive architecture (a brick pointed arch, Baltic), is the only peak wall remaining. Ancient wall paintings were destroyed by estensive refurbishing. In the presbytery and in the chapel of St. Ann hold the tombstones of Szreńsk. Here supposedly are the tombstones of the Sobiejuski brothers (Martin and Matthew) from the first half of the 16th century (see the entry for Staroźreby). The church vault has an ancient monstrance [11], a silver cross from 16th century, a missal with a beautiful binding with silver hinges, and several old beautiful chasubles [12]. Sodalities [13] exist at the church: Saint Ann since the year 1612 and the Rosary since the year 1632. In vicinity of church one finds a stone on which according to legend St. Adalbert had to rest in his missionary pilgrimage. The old castle stood in ruin until the end of the18th century; it was surrounded by a moat, it had four towers at the corners. For the then Prussian government, the Szreńsk dziedic [hier], a Knobloch, demolished these walls. According to F. M. Sobieszczański [14] (Encyklopedia Powszechnej, S. Orgelbranda) there existed in Szreńsk two chapels: St. Stanisław near the castle and St. Adalbert for the city; built in in her wall was the stone on which the saint rested. Szreńsk parish, Mława deanery (formerly Bieżuń), 4208 souls. The Szreńsk description and history written by M. Synoradzki ("Płock Correspondence", Issue 72 in the year 1884). The "Catholic Review" published details about the church (in the year 1882, issue 31). A description of the design of church [appeared in the] "Weekly Illustrated" in the year 1869 (volume 4, page 264). Br(onisław) Ch(lebowski)



1) At the time this entry was written, this area of Poland had been partitioned by Prussia and was under Prussian rule. Today, this area in Poland is known as the Masovian lake district.
2) Boleslaw Curlyhead, Polish king from 1146 to 1176.
3) Zygmunt I, Polish king from 1506 to 1548.
4) Lustracja is a list of lands and buildings in the royal estate prepared by a Seym committee.
5) Bartusz Paprocki (1544-1614), author of Crests of Polish Knighthood, 26 volumes.
6) Miecznika koronny is the royal sword-bearer. Up to the 14th century, this position was a clerk to the Polish royal court that administered the king’s armory and wore a sword in his presence. From the 14th through 16th centuries, the office was titular, and expanded to each province and powiat.
7) Gabriel Jan Podoski (1719-77), primate of Poland and archbishop of Gniezno (1767-1777).
8) Podstarośi in Poland before the 14th century was a substitute for a starosta, after that he primarily occupied himself with judicial matters. In the 16th and 17th centuries, he sometimes managed the royal demesne (e.g., crown lands). In Lithuania, he was a land clerk.
9) Bar Conferation (1768–72), a league of Polish nobles and gentry that was formed at Bar in Podolia (now western Ukraine) headed by the Pulaski family to defend the rights of the nobles, the privileges of the Roman Catholic church and the independence of Poland from Russian encroachment. Its activities precipitated a civil war, foreign intervention, and the First Partition of Poland.
10) At that time in the Catholic church, a suffragan was an auxiliary bishop who was dependent to a bishop of a diocese or a metropolitan. Today this title is not officially used.
11) A monstrance is a receptacle for displaying the consecrated host.
12) A chasuble is a outer vestment, typically made from expensive fabrics and embroidered, that is worn by the priest during celebration of mass.
13) A sodality is a society of Roman Catholic church members for religious or charitable purposes.
14) Frances Maximilian Sobieszczański (1814-1878), a historian, journalist, and author of many entries in the general encyclopedia of S. Orgelbranda. 


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 45]


This translation, by Mark Kaszniak, is used by permission.


- also Szumowa- Szumowski, Łomża gmina, previously called Somowa (in 1240 - Somowo) or Somowa Gora (mountain) (in 1420 Somowagora) the name was derived from the surname Som=Sum who leased the place.


Source: Slownik Etymologiczny Miast i Gmin PRL

Szumowo [Russian, Poland]

1) village in Sokółka powiat, in the second police district, Trofimówka gmina, located 27 verst from Sokółka.


2) estate in Nowogród powiat, since 1861 belonging to Sakowiczs, it is about 3 wloka [16.8 hectares]. A. Jel.

Szumowo [now in Zhytomir oblast, Ukraine]

farm in Radomyśl powiat, in the second police precinct, Kiczkiry gmina, 4 verst from Radomyśl.


Szumowo-Góra [Russian, Poland]

village in Łomża powiat, the gmina and parish of Szumowo, it lies on the edge of the Czerwony Bór highlands, has a parish church (unknown builder), a Jewish prayer house, primary school, municipal building, a windmill and 1,609 mórg of land.  It is the residence of the Szumowskis and their estates. In 1827 it had 26 homes and 317 inhabitants. It is mentioned in Łomża court records of 1676; seat of the Szumowskis.  Szumowo parish, Łomża decanate (formerly Wysokie Mazowieckie), 3,431souls.  Szumowo gmina has 4902 inhabitants (185 Jews), more than 18,777  mórg; ...Sniadowo (...). The gmina is made up of the following: Glebocz-Maly AKA Kaleczyn, Glebocz- Wielki, Krajewo-Budzily, Mroczki-Stylongi, Ostrozne, Pechratka, Radwany-Zaorze, Rynolty, Srebrna, Srebrny-Borek, Szumowo, Wyszomierz Wielki, Zabikowo, Zaremby-Jartuzy, Zaremby-Stryjki and Zochowo-Podbiele. Nine of these villages are populated only by szlachta, while 2 are mixed. Br. Ch.


stream, left tributary of the Lipa River, in Przemyślany powiat.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 76]


This translation, by Mark Kaszniak, is used by permission.

Szydłowce (Galicia)

Village in the Husiatyń powiat [county, district], 8 kilometers south of Husiatyń. In Husiatyń there are: the district court, the railway station, and the post and the telegraph offices. To the West and the North-West of Szydłowce lays Sidorów, to the North Trojanówka (part of village Suchodół), to the East and the South Kryków (district Kamieniec, gubernia [province] Podole – [in Russia, ed. EZ]). River Zbrucz flows along the border [with Russia –ed. EZ]. The houses are built alongside the Zbrucz valley. The majority [nobility, landowners – ed. EZ] owns: arable fields - 92 morgs, meadows and orchards - 26, pastures - 10, forests - 457 morgs. The minority [peasants – ed EZ] owns: arable fields - 93, meadows and orchards - 75 and pastures - 16 morgs. In 1880, there were 178 houses, 1012 inhabitants in the gmina [township], and 5 houses with 37 inhabitants at the manor estate. The population by religion: 782 Greek-Catholics, 242 Roman-Catholics, 21 Jews & 4 others. The population by nationality: 928 Ruthenians, 121 Poles. The Roman-Catholic parish is in Sidorów, the Greek-Catholic parish, which includes also village Zielona, is local and belongs to the Husiatyń decanat. In the village, there is a Św. Mikołaj cerkiew  [Greek-Catholic St. Nicolaus church], 1-room school and a water-mill. Lu.Dz.


Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego, Warsaw [1883, vol. 12, p. 99]


This translation, by Eva M. Zuber, is used by permission.


Szylwy (or Shyl'vy)- a village on the Szylwiak River, in the 3rd police district of Oszmiana province. It is part of the Logomowicze gmina and is located on the Milewski estate. It lies within the Czapun rural district, 42 miles from Oszmiana, and 32 miles to Dziewieniszki. It has 10 homes, with 36 Orthodox and 32 Roman Catholic inhabitants (27 taxable inhabitants in the 1865 census).

Editor's Note: All Slownik longitudes in this article have been converted to modern coordinates which is based on the Greenwich zero meridian. All Polish measurement units (land areas, distances, height above sea level, etc.) were converted to American-English equivalents.  Monetary units, where identified, were left in zlotys/zl. or rubles/rs.


Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 106]


This translation, by Mike Gansecki, is used by permission.


1) a settlement in the district of Nowominski, township of Chroscice, parish of Kaluszyn. It had 30 inhabitants with 47 acres of land.

2) an area of noble families in the district of Mazowiecki, township of Szepietowo, parish of Jablon Koscielna. In this area can be found three villages: 1) Szymbory Andrzejowieta - in 1827 it had 13 houses and 89 inhabitants, 2) Szymbory Jakubowieta - in 1827 it had 14 houses and 73 inhabitants, and 3) Szymbory Wlodki - in 1827 it had 14 houses and 73 inhabitants. It is mentioned as early as 1527 in the court deeds of that year (source: Zygmunt Gloger - The White Land).

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1892, vol. 12, p. 115]


This translation, by Jerry Gieraltowski, is used by permission.